Rethinking the public sector: Idiosyncrasies of biotechnology commercialization as motors of national R&D reform in Germany and Japan

Mark Lehrer, Kazuhiro Asakawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

43 Citations (Scopus)


Recent policies to promote biotechnology are motors of broader R&D reform in Germany and Japan. The idiosyncrasies of biotechnology commercialization could not be readily accommodated by these countries' traditional technology policies, thus prompting reforms in institutions governing the commercialization of basic scientific research. These reforms provide a novel perspective on the nature of innovation in biotechnology; while previous research has underlined factors such as the national science base, industry-university links, entrepreneurship and venture capital, the German and Japanese cases highlight the importance of other mediating variables such as the level of public governance within national research institutions, the autonomy of the university/research sector, and the historical role of the public sector generally.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)921-938
Number of pages18
JournalResearch Policy
Issue number6-7
Publication statusPublished - 2004 Sep



  • Biotechnology commercialization
  • National R&D policy
  • Private-public sector linkages

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Strategy and Management
  • Management Science and Operations Research
  • Management of Technology and Innovation

Cite this