Risk factors in pediatric hospitalization for influenza A and B during the seven seasons immediately before the COVID-19 era in Japan

Masayoshi Shinjoh, Munehiro Furuichi, Atsushi Narabayashi, Akinobu Kamei, Naoko Yoshida, Takao Takahashi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Introduction: The risk factors in pediatric influenza immediately before the COVID-19 era are not well understood. This study aims to evaluate the risk factors for hospitalization in pediatric influenza A and B for the recent seasons. Methods: Children with a fever of ≥38 °C and laboratory-confirmed influenza at 20 hospitals in outpatient settings in Japan in the 2013/14 to 2019/20 seasons were retrospectively reviewed. Possible risk factors, including gender, age, comorbidities, nursery school or kindergarten attendance, earlier diagnosis, no immunization, lower regional temperature, earlier season, and period of onset, were evaluated using binary logistic regression methods. Results: A total of 13,040 (type A, 8861; B, 4179) children were evaluated. Significant risk factors (p < 0.05) in multivariate analyses were young age, lower regional temperature, earlier season, respiratory illness (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]:2.76, 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.84–4.13), abnormal behavior and/or unusual speech (aOR:2.78, 95% CI:1.61–4.80), and seizures at onset (aOR:16.8, 95% CI:12.1–23.3) for influenza A; and young age, lower regional temperature, respiratory illness (aOR:1.99, 95% CI:1.00–3.95), history of febrile seizures (aOR:1.73, 95% CI:1.01–2.99), and seizures at onset (aOR:9.74, 95% CI:5.44–17.4) for influenza B. Conclusions: In addition to previously known factors, including young age, seizures, and respiratory illness, abnormal behavior and/or unusual speech and lower regional temperature are new factors. Negative immunization status was not a risk factor for hospitalization. A better understanding of risk factors may help improve the determination of indications for hospitalization during the future co-circulation of influenza and COVID-19.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Infection and Chemotherapy
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2021

Keywords

  • Children
  • COVID-19 era
  • Hospitalization
  • Influenza
  • Risk factor(s)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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