Background There has been no report on risk stratification for hepatectomy using a nationwide surgical database in Japan. The objective of this study was to evaluate mortality and variables associated with surgical outcomes of hepatectomy at a national level. Study Design We analyzed records of 7,732 patients who underwent hepatectomy for more than 1 segment (MOS) during 2011 in 987 different hospitals, as identified in the National Clinical Database (NCD) of Japan. The NCD captured 30-day morbidity and mortality as well as 90-day in-hospital mortality outcomes, which were submitted through a web-based data entry system. Based on 80% of the population, independent predictors for 30-day mortality and 90-day in-hospital mortality were calculated using a logistic regression model. The risk factors were validated with the remaining 20% of the cohort. Results The median postoperative length of hospitalization was 16.0 days. The overall patient morbidity rate was 32.1%. Thirty-day mortality and 90-day in-hospital mortality rates were 2.0% and 4.0%, respectively. Totals of 14 and 23 risk factors were respectively identified for 30-day mortality and 90-day in-hospital mortality. Factors associated with risk for 90-day in-hospital mortality were preoperative condition and comorbidity, operative indication (emergency surgery, intrahepatic/perihilar cholangiocarcinoma, or gallbladder cancer), preoperative laboratory data, and extent and location of resected segments (segment 1, 7, or 8). As a performance metric, c-indices of 30-day mortality and 90-day in-hospital mortality were 0.714 and 0.761, respectively. Conclusions Here we report the first risk stratification analysis of hepatectomy using a Japanese nationwide surgical database. This system would predict surgical outcomes of hepatectomy and be useful to evaluate and benchmark performance.
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