Direct cardiac reprogramming from fibroblasts can be a promising approach for disease modeling, drug screening, and cardiac regeneration in pediatric and adult patients. However, postnatal and adult fibroblasts are less efficient for reprogramming compared with embryonic fibroblasts, and barriers to cardiac reprogramming associated with aging remain undetermined. In this study, we screened 8400 chemical compounds and found that diclofenac sodium (diclofenac), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, greatly enhanced cardiac reprogramming in combination with Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5 (GMT) or GMT plus Hand2. Intriguingly, diclofenac promoted cardiac reprogramming in mouse postnatal and adult tail-tip fibroblasts (TTFs), but not in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Mechanistically, diclofenac enhanced cardiac reprogramming by inhibiting cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E2/prostaglandin E receptor 4, cyclic AMP/protein kinase A, and interleukin 1β signaling and by silencing inflammatory and fibroblast programs, which were activated in postnatal and adult TTFs. Thus, anti-inflammation represents a new target for cardiac reprogramming associated with aging.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Physics and Astronomy(all)