Role of Toll-like receptors in immune activation and tolerance in the liver

Research output: Contribution to journalShort survey

54 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Liver has a unique vascular system receiving the majority of the blood supply from the gastrointestinal tract through the portal vein and faces continuous exposure to foreign pathogens and commensal bacterial products. These gut-derived antigens stimulate liver cells and result in a distinctive immune response via a family of pattern recognition receptors, the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). TLRs are expressed on Kupffer cells, dendritic cells, hepatic stellate cells, endothelial cells, and hepatocytes in the liver. The crosstalk between gut-derived antigens and TLRs on immune cells trigger a distinctive set of mechanisms to induce immunity, contributing to various acute and chronic liver diseases including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Accumulating evidence has shown that TLRs stimulation by foreign antigens induces the production of immunoactivating and immunoregulatory cytokines. Furthermore, the immunoregulatory arm of TLR stimulation can also control excessive tissue damage. With this knowledge at hand, it is important to clarify the dual role of disease-specific TLRs as activators and regulators, especially in the liver. We will review the current understanding of TLR signaling and subsequent immune activation and tolerance by the innate immune system in the liver.

Original languageEnglish
Article number221
JournalFrontiers in Immunology
Volume5
Issue numberMAY
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

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Immune Tolerance
Toll-Like Receptors
Liver
Antigens
Pattern Recognition Receptors
Hepatic Stellate Cells
Kupffer Cells
Portal Vein
Liver Cirrhosis
Dendritic Cells
Blood Vessels
Gastrointestinal Tract
Liver Diseases
Hepatocytes
Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Immune System
Immunity
Arm
Chronic Disease
Endothelial Cells

Keywords

  • Dendritic cell
  • Kupffer cell
  • Liver tolerance
  • Microbiota
  • Toll-like receptor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Immunology and Allergy

Cite this

Role of Toll-like receptors in immune activation and tolerance in the liver. / Nakamoto, Nobuhiro; Kanai, Takanori.

In: Frontiers in Immunology, Vol. 5, No. MAY, 221, 2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalShort survey

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