Background: Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), induced by a variety of stressors, provides endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) and bilirubin, both of which play consequential roles in organs. The current study aimed to examine whether induction of HO-1 and its by-products modulated endothelial interaction with circulating leukocytes and platelets evoked by sevoflurane anesthesia in vivo. Methods: Rats, pretreated with or without hemin, were anesthetized with sevoflurane in 100% O2, and lungs were mechanically ventilated. Platelets labeled with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester and leukocyte behavior in mesenteric venules were visualized during sevoflurane anesthesia at 1,000 frames/s using intravital ultrahigh-speed intensified fluorescence videomicroscopy. To examine the mechanisms for the effects of HO-1 on leukocyte and platelet behavior, these studies were repeated with superfusion of either CO, bilirubin, or N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Results: As reported previously, the elevation of sevoflurane concentration evoked adhesive responses of leukocytes, concurrent with platelet margination and rolling. Pretreatment with hemin, a HO-1 inducer, prevented such sevoflurane-elicited changes in the microvessels. These changes were restored by zinc protoporphyrin IX, a HO inhibitor, and repressed by CO but not by bilirubin. During sevoflurane anesthesia, however, nitric oxide suppression by L-NAME deteriorated microvascular flows irrespective of the presence or absence of the HO-1 induction. Conclusions: These results indicate that endogenous CO via HO-1 induction attenuates sevoflurane-induced microvascular endothelial interactions with leukocytes and platelets, although local nitric oxide levels appear to dominate microvascular flow in situ.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine