Roles of membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 in invasion and dissemination of human malignant glioma

M. Nakada, D. Kita, K. Futami, J. Yamashita, N. Fujimoto, H. Sato, Y. Okada

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

75 Citations (Scopus)


Object. Acquisition of invasive and metastatic potentials through proteinase expression is an essential event in tumor progression. Among proteinases, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are thought to play a key role in tumor progression through the degradation of the extracellular matrix. In the present study, the authors examined the role of MMP-2 (gelatinase A) and membrane type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP), an activator of the zymogen of MMP-2, proMMP-2, together with tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2) in the invasion of astrocytic tumors in humans. Methods. Analyses performed using sandwich enzyme immunoassays demonstrated that the production levels of proMMP-2 and TIMP-1, but not TIMP-2, are significantly higher in glioblastomas multiforme than in other grades of astrocytic tumors. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction indicated that MT1-MMP is expressed predominantly in glioblastoma tissues, and its expression levels are significantly enhanced as tumor grade increases. In addition, the expression levels and proMMP-2 activation ratio were remarkably higher in glioblastomas associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dissemination than in those not associated with CSF dissemination. In contrast, an examination of TIMP-2 levels showed a reverse correlation. Like MT1-MMP, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were immunolocalized to neoplastic cells in glioblastoma samples. To study the roles of these molecules in the invasion of astrocytic tumors more fully, stable transfectants expressing the MT1-MMP gene were developed in a U251 human glioblastoma cell line. The MT1-MMP transfectants displayed prominent activation of proMMP-2 and invasive growth in three-dimensional collagen gel; however, mock transfectants and parental cells displayed noninvasive growth without the activation. The invasion and gelatinolytic activity of the transfectants were completely inhibited by addition of recombinant TIMP-2, but not recombinant TIMP-1. Conclusions. These results indicate that MTI-MMP may contribute to tumor invasion and CSF dissemination of glioblastoma cells on the basis of an imbalance of TIMP-2.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)464-473
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of neurosurgery
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2001 Jan 1


  • Dissemination
  • Glioma
  • Invasion
  • Membrane type-matrix metalloproteinase
  • Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Roles of membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 in invasion and dissemination of human malignant glioma'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this