β-Xylosides have been used as an artificial initiator of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) biosynthesis to investigate its mechanism and to obtain these oligosaccharides. In GAG biosynthesis, phosphorylation on the xylose residue is a crucial step. However, little attention has been paid to phosphorylated oligosaccharides obtained from β-xylosides. In a previous study, we demonstrated that a novel β-xyloside, N-lauryl-O-β-xyloyranosyl-serinamide (Xyl-Ser-C12), had excellent GAG-type oligosaccharide priming ability, whereas phosphorylated oligosaccharides were not found in the primed oligosaccharides. This study examines the potential of Xyl-Ser-C12 and three of its derivatives for use as a probe to investigate the GAG biosynthesis mechanism. Glycosylated products were obtained by incubation of the β-xylosides in normal human dermal fibroblast cells and compared by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. By the optimized method to detect phosphorylated products, Xyl-Ser-C12 was demonstrated to prime not only GAG-type oligosaccharides but also a variety of xylose-phosphorylated products. Among the synthesized β-xylosides, those consisting of xylosyl-serine primed large amounts of phosphorylated and GAG-type oligosaccharides, whereas the others primed sialyloligosaccharides mainly. The majority of the phosphorylated products were considered to be GAG intermediates, which are less observed in nature. To our best knowledge, this is the first report showing that the amino acid residues around the Xyl attachment position strongly affect the phosphorylation efficiency and GAG chain-priming ability of β-xylosides. This study leads to the possibility of the use of β-xyloside as a probe to observe the Xyl phosphorylation process during GAG biosynthesis and investigate comparative glycosaminoglycomics between different cells.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Chemical Engineering(all)