Background: Mutation converts the H-ras gene into an activated oncogene in about 10% of human bladder cancers. Codons 12 and 61 are the major 'hot spots' for activation. A simple and accurate method to detect point mutations in these codons may be clinically useful for early diagnosis of bladder cancer. Methods: Bladder cancer samples from 50 patients, plus 10 samples of normal bladder mucosa, were analyzed for possible point mutation of the H-ras gene at either codon 12 or codon 61. The H-ras gene DNA segments that include these 2 codons were amplified by PCR methods, then the possible presence of a point mutation was evaluated at each codon by susceptibility of the respective DNA segments to digestion with the restriction enzyme and by dot blot hybridization assay. A bladder cancer patient who had an H-ras gene mutation was examined to see whether the mutation was also detectable in the cells released in the urine. Results: Definite or possible point mutations were found in 6 (12%) out of 50 bladder cancer patients, while no mutation was detected in normal mucosa. A point mutation could also be detected in cells isolated from the patient's urine sample. Conclusion: The prevalence of point mutations at codon 12 or codon 61 of the H-ras gene found in this study was similar to that previously estimated for human bladder cancer by DNA transfection assay. The method we have used for detecting point mutations of the H-ras gene provides a simple and highly accurate way to detect mutated cancer cells even in the urine. It may be clinically usable for early diagnosis of bladder cancer.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||International Journal of Urology|
|Publication status||Published - 1997|
- Bladder neoplasms
- H-ras oncogene
- Point mutation
ASJC Scopus subject areas