Sensitivity of diesel particulate material emissions and composition to blends of petroleum diesel and biodiesel fuel

Kento T. Magara-Gomez, Michael R. Olson, Tomoaki Okuda, Kenneth A. Walz, James J. Schauer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A number of investigations have examined the impact of the use of biodiesel on the emissions of carbon dioxide and regulated emissions, but limited information exists on the chemical composition of particulate matter from diesel engines burning biodiesel blends. This study examines the composition of diesel particulate matter (DPM) emissions from a commercial agriculture tractor burning a range of biodiesel blends operating under a load that is controlled by a power take off (PTO) dynamometer. Ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel was blended with soybean and beef tallow based biodiesel to examine fuels containing 0% (B0), 25% (B25), 50% (B50), 75% (B75), and 100% (B100) biodiesel. Samples were then collected using a dilution source sampler to simulate atmospheric dilution. Diluted and aged exhaust was analyzed for particle mass and size distribution, PM2.5 particle mass, PM2.5 organic and elemental carbon, and speciated organic compounds. PM2.5 mass emissions rates for the B25, B50, and B75 soybean oil biodiesel mixtures had 20%-30% lower emissions than the petroleum diesel, but B100 emissions were about 40% higher than the petroleum diesel. The trends in mass emission rates with the increasing biodiesel content can be explained by a significant decrease in elemental carbon (EC) emissions across all blending ranges and increasing organic carbon (OC) emissions with pure biodiesel. Beef tallow biodiesel blends showed similar trends. Nevertheless, it is important to note that the study measurements are based on low dilution rates and the OC emissions changes may be affected by ambient temperature and different dilution conditions spanning micro-environments and atmospheric conditions. The results show that the use of biodiesel fuel for economic or climate change mitigation purposes can lead to reductions in PM emissions and a co-benefit of EC emission reductions. Detailed speciation of the OC emissions were also examined and are presented to understand the sensitivity of OC emissions with respect to biodiesel fuel blends.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1109-1118
Number of pages10
JournalAerosol Science and Technology
Volume46
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Oct 1

Fingerprint

Biofuels
Petroleum
Biodiesel
diesel
carbon emission
Crude oil
petroleum
Chemical analysis
dilution
organic carbon
Organic carbon
Dilution
Beef
soybean
particulate matter
Carbon
Particulate Matter
material
diesel engine
sampler

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Pollution

Cite this

Sensitivity of diesel particulate material emissions and composition to blends of petroleum diesel and biodiesel fuel. / Magara-Gomez, Kento T.; Olson, Michael R.; Okuda, Tomoaki; Walz, Kenneth A.; Schauer, James J.

In: Aerosol Science and Technology, Vol. 46, No. 10, 01.10.2012, p. 1109-1118.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Magara-Gomez, Kento T. ; Olson, Michael R. ; Okuda, Tomoaki ; Walz, Kenneth A. ; Schauer, James J. / Sensitivity of diesel particulate material emissions and composition to blends of petroleum diesel and biodiesel fuel. In: Aerosol Science and Technology. 2012 ; Vol. 46, No. 10. pp. 1109-1118.
@article{21196a41ec6d480cb739f39a07573e9c,
title = "Sensitivity of diesel particulate material emissions and composition to blends of petroleum diesel and biodiesel fuel",
abstract = "A number of investigations have examined the impact of the use of biodiesel on the emissions of carbon dioxide and regulated emissions, but limited information exists on the chemical composition of particulate matter from diesel engines burning biodiesel blends. This study examines the composition of diesel particulate matter (DPM) emissions from a commercial agriculture tractor burning a range of biodiesel blends operating under a load that is controlled by a power take off (PTO) dynamometer. Ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel was blended with soybean and beef tallow based biodiesel to examine fuels containing 0{\%} (B0), 25{\%} (B25), 50{\%} (B50), 75{\%} (B75), and 100{\%} (B100) biodiesel. Samples were then collected using a dilution source sampler to simulate atmospheric dilution. Diluted and aged exhaust was analyzed for particle mass and size distribution, PM2.5 particle mass, PM2.5 organic and elemental carbon, and speciated organic compounds. PM2.5 mass emissions rates for the B25, B50, and B75 soybean oil biodiesel mixtures had 20{\%}-30{\%} lower emissions than the petroleum diesel, but B100 emissions were about 40{\%} higher than the petroleum diesel. The trends in mass emission rates with the increasing biodiesel content can be explained by a significant decrease in elemental carbon (EC) emissions across all blending ranges and increasing organic carbon (OC) emissions with pure biodiesel. Beef tallow biodiesel blends showed similar trends. Nevertheless, it is important to note that the study measurements are based on low dilution rates and the OC emissions changes may be affected by ambient temperature and different dilution conditions spanning micro-environments and atmospheric conditions. The results show that the use of biodiesel fuel for economic or climate change mitigation purposes can lead to reductions in PM emissions and a co-benefit of EC emission reductions. Detailed speciation of the OC emissions were also examined and are presented to understand the sensitivity of OC emissions with respect to biodiesel fuel blends.",
author = "Magara-Gomez, {Kento T.} and Olson, {Michael R.} and Tomoaki Okuda and Walz, {Kenneth A.} and Schauer, {James J.}",
year = "2012",
month = "10",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1080/02786826.2012.696315",
language = "English",
volume = "46",
pages = "1109--1118",
journal = "Aerosol Science and Technology",
issn = "0278-6826",
publisher = "Taylor and Francis Ltd.",
number = "10",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Sensitivity of diesel particulate material emissions and composition to blends of petroleum diesel and biodiesel fuel

AU - Magara-Gomez, Kento T.

AU - Olson, Michael R.

AU - Okuda, Tomoaki

AU - Walz, Kenneth A.

AU - Schauer, James J.

PY - 2012/10/1

Y1 - 2012/10/1

N2 - A number of investigations have examined the impact of the use of biodiesel on the emissions of carbon dioxide and regulated emissions, but limited information exists on the chemical composition of particulate matter from diesel engines burning biodiesel blends. This study examines the composition of diesel particulate matter (DPM) emissions from a commercial agriculture tractor burning a range of biodiesel blends operating under a load that is controlled by a power take off (PTO) dynamometer. Ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel was blended with soybean and beef tallow based biodiesel to examine fuels containing 0% (B0), 25% (B25), 50% (B50), 75% (B75), and 100% (B100) biodiesel. Samples were then collected using a dilution source sampler to simulate atmospheric dilution. Diluted and aged exhaust was analyzed for particle mass and size distribution, PM2.5 particle mass, PM2.5 organic and elemental carbon, and speciated organic compounds. PM2.5 mass emissions rates for the B25, B50, and B75 soybean oil biodiesel mixtures had 20%-30% lower emissions than the petroleum diesel, but B100 emissions were about 40% higher than the petroleum diesel. The trends in mass emission rates with the increasing biodiesel content can be explained by a significant decrease in elemental carbon (EC) emissions across all blending ranges and increasing organic carbon (OC) emissions with pure biodiesel. Beef tallow biodiesel blends showed similar trends. Nevertheless, it is important to note that the study measurements are based on low dilution rates and the OC emissions changes may be affected by ambient temperature and different dilution conditions spanning micro-environments and atmospheric conditions. The results show that the use of biodiesel fuel for economic or climate change mitigation purposes can lead to reductions in PM emissions and a co-benefit of EC emission reductions. Detailed speciation of the OC emissions were also examined and are presented to understand the sensitivity of OC emissions with respect to biodiesel fuel blends.

AB - A number of investigations have examined the impact of the use of biodiesel on the emissions of carbon dioxide and regulated emissions, but limited information exists on the chemical composition of particulate matter from diesel engines burning biodiesel blends. This study examines the composition of diesel particulate matter (DPM) emissions from a commercial agriculture tractor burning a range of biodiesel blends operating under a load that is controlled by a power take off (PTO) dynamometer. Ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel was blended with soybean and beef tallow based biodiesel to examine fuels containing 0% (B0), 25% (B25), 50% (B50), 75% (B75), and 100% (B100) biodiesel. Samples were then collected using a dilution source sampler to simulate atmospheric dilution. Diluted and aged exhaust was analyzed for particle mass and size distribution, PM2.5 particle mass, PM2.5 organic and elemental carbon, and speciated organic compounds. PM2.5 mass emissions rates for the B25, B50, and B75 soybean oil biodiesel mixtures had 20%-30% lower emissions than the petroleum diesel, but B100 emissions were about 40% higher than the petroleum diesel. The trends in mass emission rates with the increasing biodiesel content can be explained by a significant decrease in elemental carbon (EC) emissions across all blending ranges and increasing organic carbon (OC) emissions with pure biodiesel. Beef tallow biodiesel blends showed similar trends. Nevertheless, it is important to note that the study measurements are based on low dilution rates and the OC emissions changes may be affected by ambient temperature and different dilution conditions spanning micro-environments and atmospheric conditions. The results show that the use of biodiesel fuel for economic or climate change mitigation purposes can lead to reductions in PM emissions and a co-benefit of EC emission reductions. Detailed speciation of the OC emissions were also examined and are presented to understand the sensitivity of OC emissions with respect to biodiesel fuel blends.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84863691885&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84863691885&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1080/02786826.2012.696315

DO - 10.1080/02786826.2012.696315

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84863691885

VL - 46

SP - 1109

EP - 1118

JO - Aerosol Science and Technology

JF - Aerosol Science and Technology

SN - 0278-6826

IS - 10

ER -