### Abstract

This paper presents elastic, shakedown and plastic limit loads for 90° elbows under constant internal pressure and cyclic in-plane bending, via finite element (FE) analysis. Effects of the elbow geometry (the bend radius to mean radius ratio and the mean radius-to-thickness ratio) and of the large geometry change are systematically investigated. By normalizing the in-plane bending moment by the plastic limit load solution of Calladine, the shakedown diagram is found to be close to unity up to a certain value of normalized pressure (normalized with respect to the limit pressure) and then to decrease almost linearly with increasing normalized pressure. The value up to which shakedown limit loads remain constant depends on the elbow geometry and the large geometry change effect. Effects of the elbow geometry and the large geometry change on shakedown diagrams are discussed.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 394-405 |

Number of pages | 12 |

Journal | International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping |

Volume | 85 |

Issue number | 6 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 2008 Jun 1 |

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### Keywords

- Elbows
- Finite element analysis
- Shakedown limit load

### ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Materials Science(all)
- Mechanics of Materials
- Mechanical Engineering

### Cite this

*International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping*,

*85*(6), 394-405. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpvp.2007.11.009