Size for gestational age at birth according to offspring sex and gestational weight gain in underweight women

Yoshifumi Kasuga, D. Shigemi, M. Tamagawa, T. Suzuki, S. H. Kim, T. Higuchi, H. Yasunaga, S. Nakada

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Abstract

Although maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) are related to fetal growth, there is a paucity of data regarding how offspring sex affects the relationship between maternal BMI in underweight mothers (pre-pregnancy BMI <18.5 kg/m 2 ) and size for gestational age at birth. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of offspring sex on the relationships among maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, GWG and size for gestational age at birth in Japanese underweight mothers. Records of women with full-term pregnancies who underwent perinatal care at Kawasaki Municipal Hospital (Kawasaki, Japan) between January 2013 and December 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. The study cohort included underweight (n=566) and normal-weight women (18.5 kg/m 2 1/2pre-pregnancy BMI<25 kg/m 2 ; n=2671). The incidence of small for gestational age (SGA) births in the underweight group was significantly higher than that in the normal-weight group (P<0.01). Additionally, SGA incidence in the underweight group was significantly higher than that in the normal-weight group (P<0.01) in female, but not male (P=0.30) neonates. In the women with female neonates, pre-pregnancy underweight was associated with a significantly increased probability of SGA (odds ratio [OR]: 1.80; P<0.01), but inadequate GWG was not (OR: 1.38; P=0.11). In contrast, in women with male neonates, inadequate GWG was associated with a significantly increased probability of SGA (OR: 1.53; P=0.03), but not with pre-pregnancy underweight (OR: 1.30; P=0.10). In conclusion, the present results suggest that pre-pregnancy underweight is associated with SGA in female offspring but not in male offspring.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jan 1
Externally publishedYes

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Keywords

  • gestational weight gain
  • offspring sex
  • small for gestational age
  • underweight

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)

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