Smartphone viewing distance and sleep: An experimental study utilizing motion capture technology

Michitaka Yoshimura, Momoko Kitazawa, Yasuhiro Maeda, Masaru Mimura, Kazuo Tsubota, Taishiro Kishimoto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

There are studies reporting the negative impact of smartphone utilization on sleep. It is considered that reduction of melatonin secretion under the blue light exposure from smartphone displays is one of the causes. The viewing distance may cause sleep disturbance, because the viewing distance determines the screen illuminance and/or asthenopia. However, to date, there has been no study closely investigating the impact of viewing distance on sleep; therefore, we sought to determine the relationship between smartphone viewing distance and subjective sleep status. Twenty-three nursing students (mean age ± standard deviation of 19.7±3.1 years) participated in the study. Subjective sleep status was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, morningness-eveningness questionnaire, and the Epworth sleepiness scale. We used the distance between the head and the hand while holding a smartphone to measure the viewing distance while using smartphones in sitting and lying positions. The distance was calculated using the three-dimensional coordinates obtained by a noncontact motion-sensing device. The viewing distance of smartphones in the sitting position ranged from 13.3 to 32.9 cm among participants. In the lying position, it ranged from 9.9 to 21.3cm. The viewing distance was longer in the sitting position than in the lying position (mean ± standard deviation: 20.3±4.7 vs 16.4±2.7, respectively, P<0.01). We found that the short viewing distance in the lying position had a positive correlation to a poorer sleep state (R2=0.27, P<0.05), lower sleep efficiency (R2=0.35, P<0.05), and longer sleep latency (R2=0.38, P<0.05). Moreover, smartphone viewing distances in lying position correlated negatively with subjective sleep status. Therefore, when recommending ideal smartphone use in lying position, one should take into account the viewing distances.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)59-65
Number of pages7
JournalNature and Science of Sleep
Volume9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Jan 1

Fingerprint

Sleep
Technology
Posture
Asthenopia
Smartphone
Nursing Students
Melatonin
Hand
Head
Light
Equipment and Supplies

Keywords

  • Blue light
  • Distance
  • Sleep
  • Smartphone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology
  • Behavioral Neuroscience

Cite this

Smartphone viewing distance and sleep : An experimental study utilizing motion capture technology. / Yoshimura, Michitaka; Kitazawa, Momoko; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Mimura, Masaru; Tsubota, Kazuo; Kishimoto, Taishiro.

In: Nature and Science of Sleep, Vol. 9, 01.01.2017, p. 59-65.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{2414604dae4c40c6a6b3a9f7eb838402,
title = "Smartphone viewing distance and sleep: An experimental study utilizing motion capture technology",
abstract = "There are studies reporting the negative impact of smartphone utilization on sleep. It is considered that reduction of melatonin secretion under the blue light exposure from smartphone displays is one of the causes. The viewing distance may cause sleep disturbance, because the viewing distance determines the screen illuminance and/or asthenopia. However, to date, there has been no study closely investigating the impact of viewing distance on sleep; therefore, we sought to determine the relationship between smartphone viewing distance and subjective sleep status. Twenty-three nursing students (mean age ± standard deviation of 19.7±3.1 years) participated in the study. Subjective sleep status was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, morningness-eveningness questionnaire, and the Epworth sleepiness scale. We used the distance between the head and the hand while holding a smartphone to measure the viewing distance while using smartphones in sitting and lying positions. The distance was calculated using the three-dimensional coordinates obtained by a noncontact motion-sensing device. The viewing distance of smartphones in the sitting position ranged from 13.3 to 32.9 cm among participants. In the lying position, it ranged from 9.9 to 21.3cm. The viewing distance was longer in the sitting position than in the lying position (mean ± standard deviation: 20.3±4.7 vs 16.4±2.7, respectively, P<0.01). We found that the short viewing distance in the lying position had a positive correlation to a poorer sleep state (R2=0.27, P<0.05), lower sleep efficiency (R2=0.35, P<0.05), and longer sleep latency (R2=0.38, P<0.05). Moreover, smartphone viewing distances in lying position correlated negatively with subjective sleep status. Therefore, when recommending ideal smartphone use in lying position, one should take into account the viewing distances.",
keywords = "Blue light, Distance, Sleep, Smartphone",
author = "Michitaka Yoshimura and Momoko Kitazawa and Yasuhiro Maeda and Masaru Mimura and Kazuo Tsubota and Taishiro Kishimoto",
year = "2017",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.2147/NSS.S123319",
language = "English",
volume = "9",
pages = "59--65",
journal = "Nature and Science of Sleep",
issn = "1179-1608",
publisher = "Dove Medical Press Ltd.",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Smartphone viewing distance and sleep

T2 - An experimental study utilizing motion capture technology

AU - Yoshimura, Michitaka

AU - Kitazawa, Momoko

AU - Maeda, Yasuhiro

AU - Mimura, Masaru

AU - Tsubota, Kazuo

AU - Kishimoto, Taishiro

PY - 2017/1/1

Y1 - 2017/1/1

N2 - There are studies reporting the negative impact of smartphone utilization on sleep. It is considered that reduction of melatonin secretion under the blue light exposure from smartphone displays is one of the causes. The viewing distance may cause sleep disturbance, because the viewing distance determines the screen illuminance and/or asthenopia. However, to date, there has been no study closely investigating the impact of viewing distance on sleep; therefore, we sought to determine the relationship between smartphone viewing distance and subjective sleep status. Twenty-three nursing students (mean age ± standard deviation of 19.7±3.1 years) participated in the study. Subjective sleep status was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, morningness-eveningness questionnaire, and the Epworth sleepiness scale. We used the distance between the head and the hand while holding a smartphone to measure the viewing distance while using smartphones in sitting and lying positions. The distance was calculated using the three-dimensional coordinates obtained by a noncontact motion-sensing device. The viewing distance of smartphones in the sitting position ranged from 13.3 to 32.9 cm among participants. In the lying position, it ranged from 9.9 to 21.3cm. The viewing distance was longer in the sitting position than in the lying position (mean ± standard deviation: 20.3±4.7 vs 16.4±2.7, respectively, P<0.01). We found that the short viewing distance in the lying position had a positive correlation to a poorer sleep state (R2=0.27, P<0.05), lower sleep efficiency (R2=0.35, P<0.05), and longer sleep latency (R2=0.38, P<0.05). Moreover, smartphone viewing distances in lying position correlated negatively with subjective sleep status. Therefore, when recommending ideal smartphone use in lying position, one should take into account the viewing distances.

AB - There are studies reporting the negative impact of smartphone utilization on sleep. It is considered that reduction of melatonin secretion under the blue light exposure from smartphone displays is one of the causes. The viewing distance may cause sleep disturbance, because the viewing distance determines the screen illuminance and/or asthenopia. However, to date, there has been no study closely investigating the impact of viewing distance on sleep; therefore, we sought to determine the relationship between smartphone viewing distance and subjective sleep status. Twenty-three nursing students (mean age ± standard deviation of 19.7±3.1 years) participated in the study. Subjective sleep status was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, morningness-eveningness questionnaire, and the Epworth sleepiness scale. We used the distance between the head and the hand while holding a smartphone to measure the viewing distance while using smartphones in sitting and lying positions. The distance was calculated using the three-dimensional coordinates obtained by a noncontact motion-sensing device. The viewing distance of smartphones in the sitting position ranged from 13.3 to 32.9 cm among participants. In the lying position, it ranged from 9.9 to 21.3cm. The viewing distance was longer in the sitting position than in the lying position (mean ± standard deviation: 20.3±4.7 vs 16.4±2.7, respectively, P<0.01). We found that the short viewing distance in the lying position had a positive correlation to a poorer sleep state (R2=0.27, P<0.05), lower sleep efficiency (R2=0.35, P<0.05), and longer sleep latency (R2=0.38, P<0.05). Moreover, smartphone viewing distances in lying position correlated negatively with subjective sleep status. Therefore, when recommending ideal smartphone use in lying position, one should take into account the viewing distances.

KW - Blue light

KW - Distance

KW - Sleep

KW - Smartphone

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85032258667&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85032258667&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.2147/NSS.S123319

DO - 10.2147/NSS.S123319

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85032258667

VL - 9

SP - 59

EP - 65

JO - Nature and Science of Sleep

JF - Nature and Science of Sleep

SN - 1179-1608

ER -