Smoking is a risk factor for pulmonary metastasis in colorectal cancer

M. Yahagi, Masashi Tsuruta, H. Hasegawa, Koji Okabayashi, N. Toyoda, N. Iwama, S. Morita, Yuukou Kitagawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Aim: The hepatic microenvironment, which may include chronic inflammation and fibrosis, is considered to contribute to the pathogenesis of liver metastases of colorectal cancer. A similar mechanism is anticipated for pulmonary metastases, although no reports are available. Smoking causes pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. Thus, we hypothesized that smokers would be especially affected by pulmonary metastases of colorectal cancer. In this study, we attempted to clarify the impact of smoking on pulmonary metastasis of colorectal cancer. Method: Between September 2005 and December 2010 we reviewed 567 patients with pathological Stage I, II or III colorectal cancer, whose clinicopathological background included a preoperative smoking history, pack-year history from medical records. Univariate and multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazard model were performed to determine the independent prognostic factors for pulmonary metastasis-free survival. Results: Pulmonary metastases occurred in 39 (6.9%) patients. The smoking histories revealed 355 never smokers, 119 former smokers and 93 current smokers among the subjects. Multivariate analysis revealed that being a current smoker (hazard ratio = 2.72, 95% CI 1.18–6.25; P = 0.02) was an independent risk factor for pulmonary metastases. Conclusion: Smoking may be a risk factor for pulmonary metastasis of colorectal cancer. Cessation of smoking should be recommended to prevent pulmonary metastasis, although further basic and clinical studies are required.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)O322-O328
JournalColorectal Disease
Volume19
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Sep 1

Fingerprint

Colorectal Neoplasms
Smoking
Neoplasm Metastasis
Lung
Multivariate Analysis
History
Pulmonary Fibrosis
Liver
Smoking Cessation
Proportional Hazards Models
Medical Records
Pneumonia
Fibrosis
Inflammation
Survival

Keywords

  • Colorectal cancer
  • pulmonary function test
  • pulmonary metastasis
  • smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology

Cite this

Smoking is a risk factor for pulmonary metastasis in colorectal cancer. / Yahagi, M.; Tsuruta, Masashi; Hasegawa, H.; Okabayashi, Koji; Toyoda, N.; Iwama, N.; Morita, S.; Kitagawa, Yuukou.

In: Colorectal Disease, Vol. 19, No. 9, 01.09.2017, p. O322-O328.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Yahagi, M. ; Tsuruta, Masashi ; Hasegawa, H. ; Okabayashi, Koji ; Toyoda, N. ; Iwama, N. ; Morita, S. ; Kitagawa, Yuukou. / Smoking is a risk factor for pulmonary metastasis in colorectal cancer. In: Colorectal Disease. 2017 ; Vol. 19, No. 9. pp. O322-O328.
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