Societal Marketing in the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Longitudinal Questionnaire Survey for Michelin-Starred Restaurants in Japan

Satoru Yamada, Yoshifumi Yamada, Junichiro Irie, Kazuo Hara, Takashi Kadowaki, Yoshihito Atsumi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Numerous dietary recommendations have been made for the prevention and treatment of diabetes. However, many people with diabetes regard healthy dietary behavior as wearisome and have difficulty adhering to nutrition therapy. We, therefore, conducted a questionnaire survey concerning the restaurants that serve meals suitable for people with diabetes. We first aimed to determine the number of restaurants that were aware of the need to create special menus for people with diabetes. Second, we aimed to encourage restaurants' serving of tasty, healthy food and promote easier social living for people with diabetes. We conducted our questionnaire survey every year from 2008 to 2013 on the availability of special menus for people with diabetes at restaurants listed in Michelin Guide Tokyo. We succeeded in increasing the proportion of restaurants offering special meals for people with diabetes from 6.7% (10 of 150 restaurants) in 2008 to 13.2% (32 of 242 restaurants) in 2013. As a result of the diabetes pandemic, the market for goods and services catering to people with diabetes is increasing. Diabetologists need to inform and support the food industry to produce foods that are suitable for people with diabetes and promote the serving of such foods by restaurants. This represents a new approach in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Feb 21
Externally publishedYes



  • diet
  • food industry
  • restaurant
  • type 2 diabetes mellitus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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