Socioeconomic advantages of longer screening intervals for men with low prostate-specific antigen levels in prostate cancer mass screening

Takashi Kobayashi, Rei Goto, Shiro Hinotsu, Osamu Ogawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


In prostate specific antigen (PSA)-based prostate cancer mass screening, the optimal re-screening interval is still in question, although guidelines suggest that a prolonged interval would be safe and cost-saving. We examined the socioeconomic feasibility of prolonged re-screening interval based on individual baseline PSA values. Markov decision-analytic models of prostate cancer screening were established for cost-effectiveness comparison of prolonged re-screening in men with low (≤ 1 ng/ml) PSA level (metainterval strategy) and annual re-screening in every participant (control strategy). Effectiveness and socioeconomic feasibility were evaluated according to quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER; Δ cost per Δ QALY), respectively. As a result, outcomes including cancer detection rates and stage shift suggested that these models well recapitulated actual prostate cancer mass screening. The meta-interval strategy was more cost-effective than the control strategy. The ICER for the control strategy with respect to the meta-interval strategy exceeded US$62,000/QALY through the sensitivity analyses for every assumption. The meta-interval strategy was more effective and less expensive if the trade-off of impaired clinical outcomes caused by delayed detection was small. In conclusion, our models suggest that the meta-interval strategy is more cost-effective than annual screening. It can be even more effective if the interval is determined appropriately such that cancer can be detected within the therapeutic window.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)159-166
Number of pages8
JournalActa Urologica Japonica
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Mar 1
Externally publishedYes



  • PSA-based prostate cancer screening

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

Cite this