Socioeconomic status is significantly associated with the dietary intakes of folate and depression scales in Japanese workers (J-HOPE study)

Koichi Miyaki, Yixuan Song, Setsuko Taneichi, Akizumi Tsutsumi, Hideki Hashimoto, Norito Kawakami, Masaya Takahashi, Akihito Shimazu, Akiomi Inoue, Sumiko Kurioka, Takuro Shimbo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


The association of socioeconomic status (SES) with nutrient intake attracts public attention worldwide. In the current study, we examined the associations of SES with dietary intake of folate and health outcomes in general Japanese workers. This Japanese occupational cohort consisted off 2266 workers. SES was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Intakes of all nutrients were assessed with a validated, brief and self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). The degree of depressive symptoms was measured by the validated Japanese version of the K6 scale. Multiple linear regression and stratified analysis were used to evaluate the associations of intake with the confounding factors. Path analysis was conducted to describe the impacts of intake on health outcomes. Education levels and household incomes were significantly associated with intake of folate and depression scales (p < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex and total energy intake, years of education significantly affect the folate intake (β = 0.117, p < 0.001). The structural equation model (SEM) shows that the indirect effect of folate intake is statistically significant and strong (p < 0.05, 56% of direct effect) in the pathway of education level to depression scale. Our study shows both education and income are significantly associated with depression scales in Japanese workers, and the effort to increase the folate intake may alleviate the harms of social disparities on mental health.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)565-578
Number of pages14
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Feb 18
Externally publishedYes


  • Depression
  • Education
  • Folate intake
  • Household income
  • Socioeconomic status

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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