Chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ClPAHs) are novel species of environmental contaminants whose possible sources remain unclear. The occurrence of ClPAHs within total suspended particles (TSP) is compared with weekly air samples at two sites of differing characteristics (industrial and residential) in the megacity of Nagoya, Japan. Samples were collected over 12 months during 2011-2012. All 24 species of targeted ClPAHs were detected at both industrial and residential sites, where mean concentrations of total ClPAHs in TSP were 20.7 and 14.1 pg/m3, respectively. High concentrations at the industrial site were frequently observed during winter, suggesting potent seasonal ClPAH sources there. Positive matrix factorization modeling of particulate ClPAH source identification and apportioning were conducted for datasets including ClPAHs, PAHs, elements and ions, plus elemental carbons in TSP. Eight factors were identified as possible ClPAH sources, with estimates that the dominant one was a specific source of ClPAH emission (31%), followed by traffic (23%), photodegradable and semi-volatile species (18%), long-range transport (11%), and industry and oil combustion (10%). Source contributions of ClPAHs differed substantially from those of PAHs. This suggests specific and/or potent ClPAH sources in the local area, and that the production mechanisms between ClPAHs and PAHs are substantially different.
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