Specific heat and effects of pairing fluctuations in the BCS-BEC-crossover regime of an ultracold Fermi gas

Pieter Van Wyk, Hiroyuki Tajima, Ryo Hanai, Yoji Ohashi

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Abstract

We investigate the specific heat at constant volume CV in the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-Bose-Einstein-condensate (BCS-BEC)-crossover regime of an ultracold Fermi gas above the superfluid phase transition temperature Tc. Within the framework of the strong-coupling theory developed by Nozières and Schmitt-Rink, we show that this thermodynamic quantity is sensitive to the stability of preformed Cooper pairs. That is, while CV(TTc) in the unitary regime is remarkably enhanced by metastable preformed Cooper pairs or pairing fluctuations, it is well described by that of an ideal Bose gas of long-lived stable molecules in the strong-coupling BEC regime. Using these results, we identify the region where the system may be viewed as an almost ideal Bose gas of stable pairs, as well as the pseudogap regime where the system is dominated by metastable preformed Cooper pairs, in the phase diagram of an ultracold Fermi gas with respect to the strength of a pairing interaction and the temperature. We also show that the calculated specific heat agrees with the recent experiment on a Li6 unitary Fermi gas. Since the formation of preformed Cooper pairs is a crucial key in the BCS-BEC-crossover phenomenon, our results would be helpful in considering how fluctuating preformed Cooper pairs appear in a Fermi gas to eventually become stable as one passes through the BCS-BEC-crossover region.

Original languageEnglish
Article number013621
JournalPhysical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics
Volume93
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Jan 25

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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