Spred-2 deficiency exacerbates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung inflammation in mice

Yang Xu, Toshihiro Ito, Soichiro Fushimi, Sakuma Takahashi, Junya Itakura, Ryojiro Kimura, Miwa Sato, Megumi Mino, Akihiko Yoshimura, Akihiro Matsukawa

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe and life-threatening acute lung injury (ALI) that is caused by noxious stimuli and pathogens. ALI is characterized by marked acute inflammation with elevated alveolar cytokine levels. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are involved in cytokine production, but the mechanisms that regulate these pathways remain poorly characterized. Here, we focused on the role of Sprouty-related EVH1-domain-containing protein (Spred)-2, a negative regulator of the Ras-Raf-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-MAPK pathway, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung inflammation.

METHODS: Wild-type (WT) mice and Spred-2(-/-) mice were exposed to intratracheal LPS (50 µg in 50 µL PBS) to induce pulmonary inflammation. After LPS-injection, the lungs were harvested to assess leukocyte infiltration, cytokine and chemokine production, ERK-MAPK activation and immunopathology. For ex vivo experiments, alveolar macrophages were harvested from untreated WT and Spred-2(-/-) mice and stimulated with LPS. In in vitro experiments, specific knock down of Spred-2 by siRNA or overexpression of Spred-2 by transfection with a plasmid encoding the Spred-2 sense sequence was introduced into murine RAW264.7 macrophage cells or MLE-12 lung epithelial cells.

RESULTS: LPS-induced acute lung inflammation was significantly exacerbated in Spred-2(-/-) mice compared with WT mice, as indicated by the numbers of infiltrating leukocytes, levels of alveolar TNF-α, CXCL2 and CCL2 in a later phase, and lung pathology. U0126, a selective MEK/ERK inhibitor, reduced the augmented LPS-induced inflammation in Spred-2(-/-) mice. Specific knock down of Spred-2 augmented LPS-induced cytokine and chemokine responses in RAW264.7 cells and MLE-12 cells, whereas Spred-2 overexpression decreased this response in RAW264.7 cells.

CONCLUSIONS: The ERK-MAPK pathway is involved in LPS-induced acute lung inflammation. Spred-2 controls the development of LPS-induced lung inflammation by negatively regulating the ERK-MAPK pathway. Thus, Spred-2 may represent a therapeutic target for the treatment of ALI.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e108914
JournalPLoS One
Volume9
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

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Protein Deficiency
lipopolysaccharides
Lipopolysaccharides
Pneumonia
inflammation
lungs
mice
Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
mitogen-activated protein kinase
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase
Proteins
proteins
Acute Lung Injury
cytokines
Cytokines
Maximum likelihood estimation
Chemokines
chemokines
Lung

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Xu, Y., Ito, T., Fushimi, S., Takahashi, S., Itakura, J., Kimura, R., ... Matsukawa, A. (2014). Spred-2 deficiency exacerbates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung inflammation in mice. PLoS One, 9(9), e108914. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108914

Spred-2 deficiency exacerbates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung inflammation in mice. / Xu, Yang; Ito, Toshihiro; Fushimi, Soichiro; Takahashi, Sakuma; Itakura, Junya; Kimura, Ryojiro; Sato, Miwa; Mino, Megumi; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Matsukawa, Akihiro.

In: PLoS One, Vol. 9, No. 9, 2014, p. e108914.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Xu, Y, Ito, T, Fushimi, S, Takahashi, S, Itakura, J, Kimura, R, Sato, M, Mino, M, Yoshimura, A & Matsukawa, A 2014, 'Spred-2 deficiency exacerbates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung inflammation in mice', PLoS One, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. e108914. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108914
Xu, Yang ; Ito, Toshihiro ; Fushimi, Soichiro ; Takahashi, Sakuma ; Itakura, Junya ; Kimura, Ryojiro ; Sato, Miwa ; Mino, Megumi ; Yoshimura, Akihiko ; Matsukawa, Akihiro. / Spred-2 deficiency exacerbates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung inflammation in mice. In: PLoS One. 2014 ; Vol. 9, No. 9. pp. e108914.
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abstract = "BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe and life-threatening acute lung injury (ALI) that is caused by noxious stimuli and pathogens. ALI is characterized by marked acute inflammation with elevated alveolar cytokine levels. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are involved in cytokine production, but the mechanisms that regulate these pathways remain poorly characterized. Here, we focused on the role of Sprouty-related EVH1-domain-containing protein (Spred)-2, a negative regulator of the Ras-Raf-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-MAPK pathway, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung inflammation.METHODS: Wild-type (WT) mice and Spred-2(-/-) mice were exposed to intratracheal LPS (50 µg in 50 µL PBS) to induce pulmonary inflammation. After LPS-injection, the lungs were harvested to assess leukocyte infiltration, cytokine and chemokine production, ERK-MAPK activation and immunopathology. For ex vivo experiments, alveolar macrophages were harvested from untreated WT and Spred-2(-/-) mice and stimulated with LPS. In in vitro experiments, specific knock down of Spred-2 by siRNA or overexpression of Spred-2 by transfection with a plasmid encoding the Spred-2 sense sequence was introduced into murine RAW264.7 macrophage cells or MLE-12 lung epithelial cells.RESULTS: LPS-induced acute lung inflammation was significantly exacerbated in Spred-2(-/-) mice compared with WT mice, as indicated by the numbers of infiltrating leukocytes, levels of alveolar TNF-α, CXCL2 and CCL2 in a later phase, and lung pathology. U0126, a selective MEK/ERK inhibitor, reduced the augmented LPS-induced inflammation in Spred-2(-/-) mice. Specific knock down of Spred-2 augmented LPS-induced cytokine and chemokine responses in RAW264.7 cells and MLE-12 cells, whereas Spred-2 overexpression decreased this response in RAW264.7 cells.CONCLUSIONS: The ERK-MAPK pathway is involved in LPS-induced acute lung inflammation. Spred-2 controls the development of LPS-induced lung inflammation by negatively regulating the ERK-MAPK pathway. Thus, Spred-2 may represent a therapeutic target for the treatment of ALI.",
author = "Yang Xu and Toshihiro Ito and Soichiro Fushimi and Sakuma Takahashi and Junya Itakura and Ryojiro Kimura and Miwa Sato and Megumi Mino and Akihiko Yoshimura and Akihiro Matsukawa",
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AU - Xu, Yang

AU - Ito, Toshihiro

AU - Fushimi, Soichiro

AU - Takahashi, Sakuma

AU - Itakura, Junya

AU - Kimura, Ryojiro

AU - Sato, Miwa

AU - Mino, Megumi

AU - Yoshimura, Akihiko

AU - Matsukawa, Akihiro

PY - 2014

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N2 - BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe and life-threatening acute lung injury (ALI) that is caused by noxious stimuli and pathogens. ALI is characterized by marked acute inflammation with elevated alveolar cytokine levels. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are involved in cytokine production, but the mechanisms that regulate these pathways remain poorly characterized. Here, we focused on the role of Sprouty-related EVH1-domain-containing protein (Spred)-2, a negative regulator of the Ras-Raf-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-MAPK pathway, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung inflammation.METHODS: Wild-type (WT) mice and Spred-2(-/-) mice were exposed to intratracheal LPS (50 µg in 50 µL PBS) to induce pulmonary inflammation. After LPS-injection, the lungs were harvested to assess leukocyte infiltration, cytokine and chemokine production, ERK-MAPK activation and immunopathology. For ex vivo experiments, alveolar macrophages were harvested from untreated WT and Spred-2(-/-) mice and stimulated with LPS. In in vitro experiments, specific knock down of Spred-2 by siRNA or overexpression of Spred-2 by transfection with a plasmid encoding the Spred-2 sense sequence was introduced into murine RAW264.7 macrophage cells or MLE-12 lung epithelial cells.RESULTS: LPS-induced acute lung inflammation was significantly exacerbated in Spred-2(-/-) mice compared with WT mice, as indicated by the numbers of infiltrating leukocytes, levels of alveolar TNF-α, CXCL2 and CCL2 in a later phase, and lung pathology. U0126, a selective MEK/ERK inhibitor, reduced the augmented LPS-induced inflammation in Spred-2(-/-) mice. Specific knock down of Spred-2 augmented LPS-induced cytokine and chemokine responses in RAW264.7 cells and MLE-12 cells, whereas Spred-2 overexpression decreased this response in RAW264.7 cells.CONCLUSIONS: The ERK-MAPK pathway is involved in LPS-induced acute lung inflammation. Spred-2 controls the development of LPS-induced lung inflammation by negatively regulating the ERK-MAPK pathway. Thus, Spred-2 may represent a therapeutic target for the treatment of ALI.

AB - BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe and life-threatening acute lung injury (ALI) that is caused by noxious stimuli and pathogens. ALI is characterized by marked acute inflammation with elevated alveolar cytokine levels. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are involved in cytokine production, but the mechanisms that regulate these pathways remain poorly characterized. Here, we focused on the role of Sprouty-related EVH1-domain-containing protein (Spred)-2, a negative regulator of the Ras-Raf-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-MAPK pathway, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung inflammation.METHODS: Wild-type (WT) mice and Spred-2(-/-) mice were exposed to intratracheal LPS (50 µg in 50 µL PBS) to induce pulmonary inflammation. After LPS-injection, the lungs were harvested to assess leukocyte infiltration, cytokine and chemokine production, ERK-MAPK activation and immunopathology. For ex vivo experiments, alveolar macrophages were harvested from untreated WT and Spred-2(-/-) mice and stimulated with LPS. In in vitro experiments, specific knock down of Spred-2 by siRNA or overexpression of Spred-2 by transfection with a plasmid encoding the Spred-2 sense sequence was introduced into murine RAW264.7 macrophage cells or MLE-12 lung epithelial cells.RESULTS: LPS-induced acute lung inflammation was significantly exacerbated in Spred-2(-/-) mice compared with WT mice, as indicated by the numbers of infiltrating leukocytes, levels of alveolar TNF-α, CXCL2 and CCL2 in a later phase, and lung pathology. U0126, a selective MEK/ERK inhibitor, reduced the augmented LPS-induced inflammation in Spred-2(-/-) mice. Specific knock down of Spred-2 augmented LPS-induced cytokine and chemokine responses in RAW264.7 cells and MLE-12 cells, whereas Spred-2 overexpression decreased this response in RAW264.7 cells.CONCLUSIONS: The ERK-MAPK pathway is involved in LPS-induced acute lung inflammation. Spred-2 controls the development of LPS-induced lung inflammation by negatively regulating the ERK-MAPK pathway. Thus, Spred-2 may represent a therapeutic target for the treatment of ALI.

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