Differences in the political systems and the economic conditions of each country in the northeast region indeed lead to diversity in terms of climate change vulnerabilities. These differences cast strong shadows on the types and scale of adaptation plans and measures started in the region. Keeping context specificity in mind, this chapter summarizes the perspective of climate change impacts, vulnerabilities of key sectors and society, and status of adaptation measures including development of national adaptation strategy and action plans in China, Japan, Korea, and Mongolia. Further it compares commonalities and gaps amongst the countries. Apart from a separate introduction for each nation, it also gives a comprehensive discussion focusing on the eight indicators described in the framework chapter. This chapter presents a comprehensive picture of the latest adaptation measures in four countries which will deepen understanding on current adaptation efforts and gaps for enhancing adaptation actions in each country.