Stratification of individual symptoms of contact lens-associated dry eye using the iphone app dryeyerhythm: Crowdsourced cross-sectional study

Takenori Inomata, Masahiro Nakamura, Masao Iwagami, Akie Midorikawa-Inomata, Jaemyoung Sung, Keiichi Fujimoto, Yuichi Okumura, Atsuko Eguchi, Nanami Iwata, Maria Miura, Kenta Fujio, Ken Nagino, Satoshi Hori, Kazuo Tsubota, Reza Dana, Akira Murakami

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Discontinuation of contact lens use is mainly caused by contact lens-associated dry eye. It is crucial to delineate contact lens-associated dry eye's multifaceted nature to tailor treatment to each patient's individual needs for future personalized medicine. Objective: This paper aims to quantify and stratify individual subjective symptoms of contact lens-associated dry eye and clarify its risk factors for future personalized medicine using the smartphone app DryEyeRhythm (Juntendo University). Methods: This cross-sectional study included iPhone (Apple Inc) users in Japan who downloaded DryEyeRhythm. DryEyeRhythm was used to collect medical big data related to contact lens-associated dry eye between November 2016 and January 2018. The main outcome measure was the incidence of contact lens-associated dry eye. Univariate and multivariate adjusted odds ratios of risk factors for contact lens-associated dry eye were determined by logistic regression analyses. The t-distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding algorithm was used to depict the stratification of subjective symptoms of contact lens-associated dry eye. Results: The records of 4454 individuals (median age 27.9 years, SD 12.6), including 2972 female participants (66.73%), who completed all surveys were included in this study. Among the included participants, 1844 (41.40%) were using contact lenses, and among those who used contact lenses, 1447 (78.47%) had contact lens-associated dry eye. Multivariate adjusted odds ratios of risk factors for contact lens-associated dry eye were as follows: younger age, 0.98 (95% CI 0.96-0.99); female sex, 1.53 (95% CI 1.05-2.24); hay fever, 1.38 (95% CI 1.10-1.74); mental illness other than depression or schizophrenia, 2.51 (95% CI 1.13-5.57); past diagnosis of dry eye, 2.21 (95% CI 1.63-2.99); extended screen exposure time >8 hours, 1.61 (95% CI 1.13-2.28); and smoking, 2.07 (95% CI 1.49-2.88). The t-distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding analysis visualized and stratified 14 groups based on the subjective symptoms of contact lens-associated dry eye. Conclusions: This study identified and stratified individuals with contact lens-associated dry eye and its risk factors. Data on subjective symptoms of contact lens-associated dry eye could be used for prospective prevention of contact lens-associated dry eye progression.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere18996
JournalJournal of medical Internet research
Volume22
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Jun

Keywords

  • Contact lens-associated dry eye
  • Dry eye
  • DryEyeRhythm
  • Mobile health
  • Mobile phone
  • ResearchKit
  • Risk factors
  • Smartphone app
  • Stratification
  • Subjective symptoms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Informatics

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