Structural basis for the ethanol action on G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying potassium channel 1 revealed by NMR spectroscopy

Yuki Toyama, Hanaho Kano, Yoko Mase, Mariko Yokogawa, Masanori Osawa, Ichio Shimada

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Ethanol consumption leads to a wide range of pharmacological effects by acting on the signaling proteins in the human nervous system, such as ion channels. Despite its familiarity and biological importance, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the ethanol action, due to extremely weak binding affinity and the dynamic nature of the ethanol interaction. In this research, we focused on the primary in vivo target of ethanol, G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying potassium channel (GIRK), which is responsible for the ethanol-induced analgesia. By utilizing solution NMR spectroscopy, we characterized the changes in the structure and dynamics of GIRK induced by ethanol binding. We demonstrated here that ethanol binds to GIRK with an apparent dissociation constant of 1.0 M and that the actual physiological binding site of ethanol is located on the cavity formed between the neighboring cytoplasmic regions of the GIRK tetramer. From the methyl-based NMR relaxation analyses, we revealed that ethanol activates GIRK by shifting the conformational equilibrium processes, which are responsible for the gating of GIRK, to stabilize an open conformation of the cytoplasmic ion gate. We suggest that the dynamic molecular mechanism of the ethanol-induced activation of GIRK represents a general model of the ethanol action on signaling proteins in the human nervous system.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3858-3863
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume115
Issue number15
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Jan 1

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Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channel
GTP-Binding Proteins
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Ethanol
Neurology
Ion Channels
Conformations
Molecular dynamics
Proteins
Chemical activation

Keywords

  • Ethanol
  • GIRK
  • Ion channels
  • NMR

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

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abstract = "Ethanol consumption leads to a wide range of pharmacological effects by acting on the signaling proteins in the human nervous system, such as ion channels. Despite its familiarity and biological importance, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the ethanol action, due to extremely weak binding affinity and the dynamic nature of the ethanol interaction. In this research, we focused on the primary in vivo target of ethanol, G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying potassium channel (GIRK), which is responsible for the ethanol-induced analgesia. By utilizing solution NMR spectroscopy, we characterized the changes in the structure and dynamics of GIRK induced by ethanol binding. We demonstrated here that ethanol binds to GIRK with an apparent dissociation constant of 1.0 M and that the actual physiological binding site of ethanol is located on the cavity formed between the neighboring cytoplasmic regions of the GIRK tetramer. From the methyl-based NMR relaxation analyses, we revealed that ethanol activates GIRK by shifting the conformational equilibrium processes, which are responsible for the gating of GIRK, to stabilize an open conformation of the cytoplasmic ion gate. We suggest that the dynamic molecular mechanism of the ethanol-induced activation of GIRK represents a general model of the ethanol action on signaling proteins in the human nervous system.",
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AU - Toyama, Yuki

AU - Kano, Hanaho

AU - Mase, Yoko

AU - Yokogawa, Mariko

AU - Osawa, Masanori

AU - Shimada, Ichio

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N2 - Ethanol consumption leads to a wide range of pharmacological effects by acting on the signaling proteins in the human nervous system, such as ion channels. Despite its familiarity and biological importance, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the ethanol action, due to extremely weak binding affinity and the dynamic nature of the ethanol interaction. In this research, we focused on the primary in vivo target of ethanol, G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying potassium channel (GIRK), which is responsible for the ethanol-induced analgesia. By utilizing solution NMR spectroscopy, we characterized the changes in the structure and dynamics of GIRK induced by ethanol binding. We demonstrated here that ethanol binds to GIRK with an apparent dissociation constant of 1.0 M and that the actual physiological binding site of ethanol is located on the cavity formed between the neighboring cytoplasmic regions of the GIRK tetramer. From the methyl-based NMR relaxation analyses, we revealed that ethanol activates GIRK by shifting the conformational equilibrium processes, which are responsible for the gating of GIRK, to stabilize an open conformation of the cytoplasmic ion gate. We suggest that the dynamic molecular mechanism of the ethanol-induced activation of GIRK represents a general model of the ethanol action on signaling proteins in the human nervous system.

AB - Ethanol consumption leads to a wide range of pharmacological effects by acting on the signaling proteins in the human nervous system, such as ion channels. Despite its familiarity and biological importance, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the ethanol action, due to extremely weak binding affinity and the dynamic nature of the ethanol interaction. In this research, we focused on the primary in vivo target of ethanol, G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying potassium channel (GIRK), which is responsible for the ethanol-induced analgesia. By utilizing solution NMR spectroscopy, we characterized the changes in the structure and dynamics of GIRK induced by ethanol binding. We demonstrated here that ethanol binds to GIRK with an apparent dissociation constant of 1.0 M and that the actual physiological binding site of ethanol is located on the cavity formed between the neighboring cytoplasmic regions of the GIRK tetramer. From the methyl-based NMR relaxation analyses, we revealed that ethanol activates GIRK by shifting the conformational equilibrium processes, which are responsible for the gating of GIRK, to stabilize an open conformation of the cytoplasmic ion gate. We suggest that the dynamic molecular mechanism of the ethanol-induced activation of GIRK represents a general model of the ethanol action on signaling proteins in the human nervous system.

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