PURPOSE: We conducted an epidemiological study of survival and disability in stroke in three Japanese communities to seek community strategies for improvement in survival and disability. METHODS: A total of 297 first-ever strokes were identified between 1988 and 1992 in three rural communities (total population = 47,000) located in Akita and Ibaraki. We analyzed survival rates and activity of daily living by sex, age-group and stroke subtypes. Successful review of computed tomography (CT) for 84 percent of the strokes (249 out of 297) was possible and the data were used for subtype analyses. RESULTS: For all strokes (n = 297) survival rates were 85% for 30 day, 70% for one year, 62% for three year. The rates tended to be lower in women than in men. The rates were lowest in ages less than 60 at thirty day, and in ages 80 and older at the end of the first and third year. Intracerebral hemorrhage with ventricular rupture, subarachnoid hemorrhage and cortical cerebral infarction had lower survival rates than intracerebral hemorrhage without ventricular rupture and lacunar infarction. Based on Cox's proportional hazard model, risk ratio for death was 2.07 in ages 70-79, and 3.80 in ages 80 and older compared with ages 60-69. The risk ratio was 3.46 for intracerebral hemorrhage with ventricular rupture, 3.38 for subarachnoid hemorrhage and 2.46 for cortical cerebral infarction compared with lacunar infarction. The proportion of stroke survivors who need assistance from others in the first and third years tended to be higher in women than in men. The proportion was higher in older patients than in the younger, and higher for intracerebral hemorrhage with ventricular rupture and cortical cerebral infarction than in other subtypes of stroke. From logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio for disability in the first year was 6.55 for ages 80 and older compared with ages 60-69. The odds ratio was 5.61 for intracerebral hemorrhage with ventricular rupture, 4.53 for cortical cerebral infarction compared with lacunar infarction. In the third year the odds ratio was significant for ages 70-79, and decreased for intracerebral hemorrhage with ventricular rupture (odds ratio = 2.98), and increased for cortical cerebral infarction (odds ratio = 6.06). CONCLUSIONS: Survival and disability in stroke depended on age and stroke subtypes. Even after age adjustment, stroke subtypes with large cerebral involvement had worse prognosis than stroke subtypes. Community-based hypertension control programs are important to prevent any subtypes of stroke. Stroke subtypes as well as age should be taken into account to develop effective care and medical treatments for strokes.
|Number of pages||12|
|Journal||[Nippon kōshū eisei zasshi] Japanese journal of public health|
|Publication status||Published - 1998|