The synthesis and property of new three-dimensional curved heterocyclic π- electron molecules with embedded nitrogen atoms such as helix-, butterfly-, bowl-, and flake-shaped molecules were investigated. Particularly, novel heterocyclic molecules with an embedded hydrazine structure were focused. Hydrazine-embedded helix-shaped bicarbazole, bidimethylacridine, and biphenothiazine were synthesized by dimerization of the corresponding heterocycles. The hydrazine-embedded helical molecules were found to undergo electron transfer disproportionation by acid stimulus, forming their stable radical cations and reduced species through the acid-triggered N - N bond cleavage reaction. In the case of bidimethylacridine, the disproportionation reaction is highly reversible through neutralization with NEt3 through back electron transfer and N - N bond formation. Utilizing their reversible redox property, the hydrazine-embedded molecules were applied to cathode active materials of rechargeable lithium organic batteries with excellent performance. Ni-mediated coupling of dibromo-dimethylacridine, phenothiazine, or acridone was found to afford double-butterfly- shaped cyclodimers in high yields. Following N - N bond formation gave hydrazine-embedded butterfly-shaped or planar molecules. The double - butterfly-shaped cyclobiphenothiazine was converted to a cyclodimer of carbazole, cyclo-1,8-carbazolylene, through reductive desulfurization. N - N bond formation of  cyclo- 1,8-carbazo-lylene afforded hydrazine-embedded bowl-shaped bicarbazole. The bicarbazole was found to possess bowl and twist structures in the neutral state, a shallow bowl structure in the monocation state, and a planar structure in the dication state by X-ray analysis, 13 C NMR, and DFT calcula¬ tions. Hydrazine-embedded helix-, butterfly-, and bowl-shaped molecules expressed reversible oxidation at a wide range of potentials and red-shift of absorption and fluorescence. The bowl - shaped dimer, a flake-shaped cyclotrimer, a square-shaped cyclotetramer, and a hexagon-shaped cyclohexamer of carbazole were synthesized by Ni-mediated coupling of 1,8-dibromocarbazole, and were named [n]cyclo-1,8-carbazolylenes (n = 3,4,6). A flake-shaped cyclo-4,6-dibenzo-furanylene was also obtained from dibromodibenzofuran. B, P, and Si atoms were introduced to -cyclo-1,8-carbazolylene, giving flake-shaped complexes.
|Number of pages||13|
|Journal||Yuki Gosei Kagaku Kyokaishi/Journal of Synthetic Organic Chemistry|
|Publication status||Published - 2019|
- Double - butterfly
- π-electron molecule
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Organic Chemistry