Synthetic dimensions, which simulate spatial coordinates using nonspatial degrees of freedom, are drawing interest in topological science and other fields for modeling higher-dimensional phenomena on simple structures. We present the first realization of a synthetic frequency dimension on a silicon ring resonator integrated photonic device fabricated using a CMOS process. We confirm that its coupled modes correspond to a one-dimensional tight-binding model through acquisition of up to 280-GHz bandwidth optical frequency comb-like spectra and by measuring synthetic band structures. Furthermore, we realized two types of gauge potentials along the frequency dimension and probed their effects through the associated band structures. An electric field analog was produced via modulation detuning, whereas effective magnetic fields were induced using synchronized nearest- and second nearest–neighbor couplings. Creation of coupled mode lattices and two effective forces on a monolithic Si CMOS device represents a key step toward wider adoption of topological principles.
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