We study the vacuum structure of a class of Lorentz invariant field theories where the vacuum expectation values are not constant but are (phase) modulated. The vacua are classified into spatial, temporal, and light-like modulation types according to the patterns of spontaneous breaking of translational symmetry. The conditions for having temporal or light-like modulated vacua imply severe constraints on the models. We utilize the notion of generalized Nambu-Goldstone modes which appear in the modulated vacua. Finally, we examine fluctuation modes around these vacua and discuss their dynamics and the absence of ghosts.
|Publication status||Published - 2018 Oct 26|
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