Texture and morphology variations in (In,Ga)2Se3 and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films grown with various Se source conditions

Shogo Ishizuka, Akimasa Yamada, Paul Fons, Shigeru Niki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Citations (Scopus)


Texture and morphology variations in co-evaporated (In,Ga) 2Se3 and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) films grown with various Se source conditions during growth were studied. The Se species of simply evaporated, large molecular Se (E-Se, low-sticking coefficient), and RF-plasma cracked atomic Se (R-Se, high sticking coefficient) were used in the present work. (In,Ga)2Se3 precursor films, which were prepared during the first stage of CIGS film growth by the three-stage process, showed systematic variations in texture and Na distribution profile with varying evaporative Se (E-Se) flux. The properties of CIGS films and solar cells also showed systematic variations, and the open-circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor were found to be especially sensitive to the E-Se flux. R-Se grown (In,Ga)2Se3 precursor films featured granular morphology with strong (105) and (301) peaks in the diffraction pattern, and the texture was very similar to an E-Se grown film fabricated with a Se to group III metal (In + Ga) flux ratio (P[Se]/[In + Ga]) of about 6, although the nominal P[Se]/[In + Ga] used for an R-Se source was very small and less than 0.5. The R-Se grown CIGS films displayed, however, highly dense surfaces and larger grain sizes than E-Se grown CIGS films. The controllability of film morphology and the Na diffusion profile in (In,Ga)2Se 3 and CIGS films with various Se source conditions are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)544-553
Number of pages10
JournalProgress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Jun
Externally publishedYes


  • (In,Ga)Se
  • Cu(In,Ga)Se
  • RF-plasma cracked Se
  • Se flux
  • texture

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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