Background/Purpose: To develop practical and less invasive techniques for fetal endoscopic surgery, new methods of lifting the uterine wall to allow fetal surgery without maternal laparotomy were developed and assessed. Methods: Fetal endoscopic surgical procedures, including tracheostomy and umbilical vascular cannulation, were performed using one of the three methods to enter the uterus without maternal laparotomy in pregnant goats (n = 6; 105 to 115 days' gestation): (1) direct uterine lifting with an air-cushion device; (2) indirect uterine lifting, in which the uterine wall was fixed to the maternal abdominal wall using balloon tip ports inserted percutaneously by Seldinger's method, then the maternal abdomen was lifted mechanically; and (3) combined method, in which low pressure CO2 (5 mm Hg for initial inflation and 2 mm Hg for maintenance) was insufflated into the uterus in addition to the indirect uterine lifting cited above. Results: The direct uterine lifting caused massive injury of myometrium and uterine membranes. The creation of intrauterine space and the protection of the membranes were not accomplished effectively by the indirect uterine lifting only. The combined method provided the adequate intrauterine space and excellent endoscopic visibility for completion of the endoscopic procedures with minimal uterine injury. Conclusion: The fetal endoscopic surgery may be accomplished simply and safely by the combined method, a novel technique of uterine lifting to allow fetal surgery without maternal laparotomy.
- Fetal endoscopic surgery
- Gasless laparoscopic method
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health