The effects of epidural anesthesia on growth of Escherichia coli at pseudosurgical site

The roles of the lipocalin-2 pathway

Toru Igarashi, Takeshi Suzuki, Katsuya Mori, Kei Inoue, Hiroyuki Seki, Takashige Yamada, Shizuko Kosugi, Shizuka Minamishima, Nobuyuki Katori, Fumiya Sano, Takayuki Abe, Hiroshi Morisaki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Neutrophil-derived lipocalin-2 exerts bacteriostatic effects through retardation of iron uptake by the Gram-negative organisms like Escherichia coli. We tested the hypothesis that the expression of lipocalin-2, a bacteriostatic protein, was upregulated by induction of surgical site infection (SSI) with E coli in healthy and diseased rats and that epidural anesthesia modulated its expression. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were randomized into a healthy or disease group, the latter of which was administered lipopolysaccharide. Both groups were further divided into 3 subgroups, the control, saline, and lidocaine groups: group healthy control (n = 10), healthy saline (n = 10), and healthy lidocaine (n = 10) versus group disease control (n = 15), disease saline (n = 18), and disease lidocaine (n = 19), respectively. While saline was epidurally administered to the control and saline groups, lidocaine was administered to the lidocaine groups. Except for the control groups, E coli was injected to the pseudosurgical site to mimic SSI after abdominal surgery. Plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokine and lipocalin-2 were measured. At 72 hours, the surgical site tissues were obtained to evaluate mRNA expression of lipocalin-2 and E coli DNA expression. RESULTS: All disease subgroups showed markedly increased plasma inflammatory cytokines versus the healthy subgroups. Among the disease subgroups, plasma concentrations of lipocalin-2 and tissue mRNA expression of lipocalin-2 were significantly increased in group disease lidocaine versus the others. Concurrently, E coli DNA expression in the tissue specimens was also significantly lower in group disease lidocaine as compared with group disease saline. CONCLUSIONS: Epidural anesthesia was associated with an increase in the expression lipocalin-2 and a decrease in the expression of E coli DNA at pseudosurgical sites in sick but not healthy rats. These observations suggest a potential mechanism by which epidural anesthesia could reduce the risk of SSI.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)81-89
Number of pages9
JournalAnesthesia and Analgesia
Volume121
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Jul 4

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Epidural Anesthesia
Lidocaine
Escherichia coli
Growth
Surgical Wound Infection
Control Groups
DNA
Lipocalin-2
Cytokines
Messenger RNA
Lipopolysaccharides
Wistar Rats
Neutrophils
Iron

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

Cite this

The effects of epidural anesthesia on growth of Escherichia coli at pseudosurgical site : The roles of the lipocalin-2 pathway. / Igarashi, Toru; Suzuki, Takeshi; Mori, Katsuya; Inoue, Kei; Seki, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Takashige; Kosugi, Shizuko; Minamishima, Shizuka; Katori, Nobuyuki; Sano, Fumiya; Abe, Takayuki; Morisaki, Hiroshi.

In: Anesthesia and Analgesia, Vol. 121, No. 1, 04.07.2015, p. 81-89.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "BACKGROUND: Neutrophil-derived lipocalin-2 exerts bacteriostatic effects through retardation of iron uptake by the Gram-negative organisms like Escherichia coli. We tested the hypothesis that the expression of lipocalin-2, a bacteriostatic protein, was upregulated by induction of surgical site infection (SSI) with E coli in healthy and diseased rats and that epidural anesthesia modulated its expression. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were randomized into a healthy or disease group, the latter of which was administered lipopolysaccharide. Both groups were further divided into 3 subgroups, the control, saline, and lidocaine groups: group healthy control (n = 10), healthy saline (n = 10), and healthy lidocaine (n = 10) versus group disease control (n = 15), disease saline (n = 18), and disease lidocaine (n = 19), respectively. While saline was epidurally administered to the control and saline groups, lidocaine was administered to the lidocaine groups. Except for the control groups, E coli was injected to the pseudosurgical site to mimic SSI after abdominal surgery. Plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokine and lipocalin-2 were measured. At 72 hours, the surgical site tissues were obtained to evaluate mRNA expression of lipocalin-2 and E coli DNA expression. RESULTS: All disease subgroups showed markedly increased plasma inflammatory cytokines versus the healthy subgroups. Among the disease subgroups, plasma concentrations of lipocalin-2 and tissue mRNA expression of lipocalin-2 were significantly increased in group disease lidocaine versus the others. Concurrently, E coli DNA expression in the tissue specimens was also significantly lower in group disease lidocaine as compared with group disease saline. CONCLUSIONS: Epidural anesthesia was associated with an increase in the expression lipocalin-2 and a decrease in the expression of E coli DNA at pseudosurgical sites in sick but not healthy rats. These observations suggest a potential mechanism by which epidural anesthesia could reduce the risk of SSI.",
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AU - Igarashi, Toru

AU - Suzuki, Takeshi

AU - Mori, Katsuya

AU - Inoue, Kei

AU - Seki, Hiroyuki

AU - Yamada, Takashige

AU - Kosugi, Shizuko

AU - Minamishima, Shizuka

AU - Katori, Nobuyuki

AU - Sano, Fumiya

AU - Abe, Takayuki

AU - Morisaki, Hiroshi

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N2 - BACKGROUND: Neutrophil-derived lipocalin-2 exerts bacteriostatic effects through retardation of iron uptake by the Gram-negative organisms like Escherichia coli. We tested the hypothesis that the expression of lipocalin-2, a bacteriostatic protein, was upregulated by induction of surgical site infection (SSI) with E coli in healthy and diseased rats and that epidural anesthesia modulated its expression. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were randomized into a healthy or disease group, the latter of which was administered lipopolysaccharide. Both groups were further divided into 3 subgroups, the control, saline, and lidocaine groups: group healthy control (n = 10), healthy saline (n = 10), and healthy lidocaine (n = 10) versus group disease control (n = 15), disease saline (n = 18), and disease lidocaine (n = 19), respectively. While saline was epidurally administered to the control and saline groups, lidocaine was administered to the lidocaine groups. Except for the control groups, E coli was injected to the pseudosurgical site to mimic SSI after abdominal surgery. Plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokine and lipocalin-2 were measured. At 72 hours, the surgical site tissues were obtained to evaluate mRNA expression of lipocalin-2 and E coli DNA expression. RESULTS: All disease subgroups showed markedly increased plasma inflammatory cytokines versus the healthy subgroups. Among the disease subgroups, plasma concentrations of lipocalin-2 and tissue mRNA expression of lipocalin-2 were significantly increased in group disease lidocaine versus the others. Concurrently, E coli DNA expression in the tissue specimens was also significantly lower in group disease lidocaine as compared with group disease saline. CONCLUSIONS: Epidural anesthesia was associated with an increase in the expression lipocalin-2 and a decrease in the expression of E coli DNA at pseudosurgical sites in sick but not healthy rats. These observations suggest a potential mechanism by which epidural anesthesia could reduce the risk of SSI.

AB - BACKGROUND: Neutrophil-derived lipocalin-2 exerts bacteriostatic effects through retardation of iron uptake by the Gram-negative organisms like Escherichia coli. We tested the hypothesis that the expression of lipocalin-2, a bacteriostatic protein, was upregulated by induction of surgical site infection (SSI) with E coli in healthy and diseased rats and that epidural anesthesia modulated its expression. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were randomized into a healthy or disease group, the latter of which was administered lipopolysaccharide. Both groups were further divided into 3 subgroups, the control, saline, and lidocaine groups: group healthy control (n = 10), healthy saline (n = 10), and healthy lidocaine (n = 10) versus group disease control (n = 15), disease saline (n = 18), and disease lidocaine (n = 19), respectively. While saline was epidurally administered to the control and saline groups, lidocaine was administered to the lidocaine groups. Except for the control groups, E coli was injected to the pseudosurgical site to mimic SSI after abdominal surgery. Plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokine and lipocalin-2 were measured. At 72 hours, the surgical site tissues were obtained to evaluate mRNA expression of lipocalin-2 and E coli DNA expression. RESULTS: All disease subgroups showed markedly increased plasma inflammatory cytokines versus the healthy subgroups. Among the disease subgroups, plasma concentrations of lipocalin-2 and tissue mRNA expression of lipocalin-2 were significantly increased in group disease lidocaine versus the others. Concurrently, E coli DNA expression in the tissue specimens was also significantly lower in group disease lidocaine as compared with group disease saline. CONCLUSIONS: Epidural anesthesia was associated with an increase in the expression lipocalin-2 and a decrease in the expression of E coli DNA at pseudosurgical sites in sick but not healthy rats. These observations suggest a potential mechanism by which epidural anesthesia could reduce the risk of SSI.

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