Background: Peritonitis is one of the most frequent reasons for withdrawal of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Although most cases of PD-related peritonitis can be treated with antibiotics, it is occasionally refractory and culture-negative. Summary: The causes of refractory PD-related peritonitis include antibiotic-resistant bacteria, fungal peritonitis, biofilm formation in PD catheters, bacterial translocation from the gastrointestinal tract, and encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis. Among them, culture-negative peritonitis is notable, and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) can be a cause of culture-negative peritonitis. In the present study, the treatment and outcomes of NTM peritonitis and exit site infections were investigated by collecting data from relevant reviews published during the last 10 years. Catheter removal was required in 92.2% of the patients with NTM peritonitis, and withdrawal of PD was performed in 91.9%. The overall mortality rate (including unrelated deaths) was 12.4% in patients with NTM peritonitis. Among patients with NTM exit site infections, 33.3% developed peritonitis, and catheter removal was required in 50.0%. A lower percentage of patients stopped PD when the catheter was removed without developing peritonitis (37.5%) than when it was removed after the onset of peritonitis (91.9%). Changing the exit site or unroofing was performed in 12.5% of the patients with NTM exit site infections. In addition, these infections resolved with antibiotics alone or without antibiotics in 18.8 and 12.5% of the patients, respectively, while 6.25% of the patients died.
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