Thiosulfate mediates cytoprotective effects of hydrogen sulfide against neuronal ischemia

Eizo Marutani, Marina Yamada, Tomoaki Ida, Kentaro Tokuda, Kohei Ikeda, Shinichi Kai, Kazuhiro Shirozu, Kei Hayashida, Shizuko Kosugi, Kenjiro Hanaoka, Masao Kaneki, Takaaki Akaike, Fumito Ichinose

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Abstract

Background-Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exhibits protective effects in various disease models including cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Nonetheless, mechanisms and identity of molecules responsible for neuroprotective effects of H2S remain incompletely defined. In the current study, we observed that thiosulfate, an oxidation product of H2S, mediates protective effects of an H2S donor compound sodium sulfide (Na2S) against neuronal I/R injury. Methods and Results-We observed that thiosulfate in cell culture medium is not only required but also sufficient to mediate cytoprotective effects of Na2S against oxygen glucose deprivation and reoxygenation of human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y) and murine primary cortical neurons. Systemic administration of sodium thiosulfate (STS) improved survival and neurological function of mice subjected to global cerebral I/R injury. Beneficial effects of STS, as well as Na2S, were associated with marked increase of thiosulfate, but not H2S, in plasma and brain tissues. These results suggest that thiosulfate is a circulating "carrier" molecule of beneficial effects of H2S. Protective effects of thiosulfate were associated with inhibition of caspase-3 activity by persulfidation at Cys163 in caspase-3. We discovered that an SLC13 family protein, sodium sulfate cotransporter 2 (SLC13A4, NaS-2), facilitates transport of thiosulfate, but not sulfide, across the cell membrane, regulating intracellular concentrations and thus mediating cytoprotective effects of Na2S and STS. Conclusions-The protective effects of H2S are mediated by thiosulfate that is transported across cell membrane by NaS-2 and exerts antiapoptotic effects via persulfidation of caspase-3. Given the established safety track record, thiosulfate may be therapeutic against ischemic brain injury.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere002125
JournalJournal of the American Heart Association
Volume4
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Nov 1
Externally publishedYes

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Keywords

  • Apoptosis
  • Cerebral ischemia
  • Hydrogen sulfide
  • Sulfidation
  • Thiosulfate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

Marutani, E., Yamada, M., Ida, T., Tokuda, K., Ikeda, K., Kai, S., Shirozu, K., Hayashida, K., Kosugi, S., Hanaoka, K., Kaneki, M., Akaike, T., & Ichinose, F. (2015). Thiosulfate mediates cytoprotective effects of hydrogen sulfide against neuronal ischemia. Journal of the American Heart Association, 4(11), [e002125]. https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.115.002125