Transcranial extracellular impedance control (tEIC) modulates behavioral performances

Ayumu Matani, Masaaki Nakayama, Mayumi Watanabe, Yoshikazu Furuyama, Atsushi Hotta, Shotaro Hoshino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Electric brain stimulations such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS), and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) electrophysiologically modulate brain activity and as a result sometimes modulate behavioral performances. These stimulations can be viewed from an engineering standpoint as involving an artificial electric source (DC, noise, or AC) attached to an impedance branch of a distributed parameter circuit. The distributed parameter circuit is an approximation of the brain and includes electric sources (neurons) and impedances (volume conductors). Such a brain model is linear, as is often the case with the electroencephalogram (EEG) forward model. Thus, the above-mentioned current stimulations change the current distribution in the brain depending on the locations of the electric sources in the brain. Now, if the attached artificial electric source were to be replaced with a resistor, or even a negative resistor, the resistor would also change the current distribution in the brain. In light of the superposition theorem, which holds for any linear electric circuit, attaching an electric source is different from attaching a resistor; the resistor affects each active electric source in the brain so as to increase (or decrease in some cases of a negative resistor) the current flowing out from each source. From an electrophysiological standpoint, the attached resistor can only control the extracellular impedance and never causes forced stimulation; we call this technique transcranial extracellular impedance control (tEIC). We conducted a behavioral experiment to evaluate tEIC and found evidence that it had real-time enhancement and depression effects on EEGs and a real-time facilitation effect on reaction times. Thus, tEIC could be another technique to modulate behavioral performance.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere102834
JournalPloS one
Volume9
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Jul 21
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

impedance
Electric Impedance
Resistors
Brain
brain
Electroencephalography
Networks (circuits)
Brain models
electronic circuits
electroencephalography
Neurons
Electric Stimulation
Noise
Linear Models
engineering
neurons
methodology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • General

Cite this

Transcranial extracellular impedance control (tEIC) modulates behavioral performances. / Matani, Ayumu; Nakayama, Masaaki; Watanabe, Mayumi; Furuyama, Yoshikazu; Hotta, Atsushi; Hoshino, Shotaro.

In: PloS one, Vol. 9, No. 7, e102834, 21.07.2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Matani, A, Nakayama, M, Watanabe, M, Furuyama, Y, Hotta, A & Hoshino, S 2014, 'Transcranial extracellular impedance control (tEIC) modulates behavioral performances', PloS one, vol. 9, no. 7, e102834. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102834
Matani, Ayumu ; Nakayama, Masaaki ; Watanabe, Mayumi ; Furuyama, Yoshikazu ; Hotta, Atsushi ; Hoshino, Shotaro. / Transcranial extracellular impedance control (tEIC) modulates behavioral performances. In: PloS one. 2014 ; Vol. 9, No. 7.
@article{30faa6e336d84237ae5d4f0aad842cf8,
title = "Transcranial extracellular impedance control (tEIC) modulates behavioral performances",
abstract = "Electric brain stimulations such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS), and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) electrophysiologically modulate brain activity and as a result sometimes modulate behavioral performances. These stimulations can be viewed from an engineering standpoint as involving an artificial electric source (DC, noise, or AC) attached to an impedance branch of a distributed parameter circuit. The distributed parameter circuit is an approximation of the brain and includes electric sources (neurons) and impedances (volume conductors). Such a brain model is linear, as is often the case with the electroencephalogram (EEG) forward model. Thus, the above-mentioned current stimulations change the current distribution in the brain depending on the locations of the electric sources in the brain. Now, if the attached artificial electric source were to be replaced with a resistor, or even a negative resistor, the resistor would also change the current distribution in the brain. In light of the superposition theorem, which holds for any linear electric circuit, attaching an electric source is different from attaching a resistor; the resistor affects each active electric source in the brain so as to increase (or decrease in some cases of a negative resistor) the current flowing out from each source. From an electrophysiological standpoint, the attached resistor can only control the extracellular impedance and never causes forced stimulation; we call this technique transcranial extracellular impedance control (tEIC). We conducted a behavioral experiment to evaluate tEIC and found evidence that it had real-time enhancement and depression effects on EEGs and a real-time facilitation effect on reaction times. Thus, tEIC could be another technique to modulate behavioral performance.",
author = "Ayumu Matani and Masaaki Nakayama and Mayumi Watanabe and Yoshikazu Furuyama and Atsushi Hotta and Shotaro Hoshino",
year = "2014",
month = "7",
day = "21",
doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0102834",
language = "English",
volume = "9",
journal = "PLoS One",
issn = "1932-6203",
publisher = "Public Library of Science",
number = "7",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Transcranial extracellular impedance control (tEIC) modulates behavioral performances

AU - Matani, Ayumu

AU - Nakayama, Masaaki

AU - Watanabe, Mayumi

AU - Furuyama, Yoshikazu

AU - Hotta, Atsushi

AU - Hoshino, Shotaro

PY - 2014/7/21

Y1 - 2014/7/21

N2 - Electric brain stimulations such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS), and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) electrophysiologically modulate brain activity and as a result sometimes modulate behavioral performances. These stimulations can be viewed from an engineering standpoint as involving an artificial electric source (DC, noise, or AC) attached to an impedance branch of a distributed parameter circuit. The distributed parameter circuit is an approximation of the brain and includes electric sources (neurons) and impedances (volume conductors). Such a brain model is linear, as is often the case with the electroencephalogram (EEG) forward model. Thus, the above-mentioned current stimulations change the current distribution in the brain depending on the locations of the electric sources in the brain. Now, if the attached artificial electric source were to be replaced with a resistor, or even a negative resistor, the resistor would also change the current distribution in the brain. In light of the superposition theorem, which holds for any linear electric circuit, attaching an electric source is different from attaching a resistor; the resistor affects each active electric source in the brain so as to increase (or decrease in some cases of a negative resistor) the current flowing out from each source. From an electrophysiological standpoint, the attached resistor can only control the extracellular impedance and never causes forced stimulation; we call this technique transcranial extracellular impedance control (tEIC). We conducted a behavioral experiment to evaluate tEIC and found evidence that it had real-time enhancement and depression effects on EEGs and a real-time facilitation effect on reaction times. Thus, tEIC could be another technique to modulate behavioral performance.

AB - Electric brain stimulations such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS), and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) electrophysiologically modulate brain activity and as a result sometimes modulate behavioral performances. These stimulations can be viewed from an engineering standpoint as involving an artificial electric source (DC, noise, or AC) attached to an impedance branch of a distributed parameter circuit. The distributed parameter circuit is an approximation of the brain and includes electric sources (neurons) and impedances (volume conductors). Such a brain model is linear, as is often the case with the electroencephalogram (EEG) forward model. Thus, the above-mentioned current stimulations change the current distribution in the brain depending on the locations of the electric sources in the brain. Now, if the attached artificial electric source were to be replaced with a resistor, or even a negative resistor, the resistor would also change the current distribution in the brain. In light of the superposition theorem, which holds for any linear electric circuit, attaching an electric source is different from attaching a resistor; the resistor affects each active electric source in the brain so as to increase (or decrease in some cases of a negative resistor) the current flowing out from each source. From an electrophysiological standpoint, the attached resistor can only control the extracellular impedance and never causes forced stimulation; we call this technique transcranial extracellular impedance control (tEIC). We conducted a behavioral experiment to evaluate tEIC and found evidence that it had real-time enhancement and depression effects on EEGs and a real-time facilitation effect on reaction times. Thus, tEIC could be another technique to modulate behavioral performance.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84904643111&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84904643111&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1371/journal.pone.0102834

DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0102834

M3 - Article

C2 - 25047913

AN - SCOPUS:84904643111

VL - 9

JO - PLoS One

JF - PLoS One

SN - 1932-6203

IS - 7

M1 - e102834

ER -