Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is increasingly used as a curative option for adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), an intractable mature T-cell neoplasm causally linked with human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I). We compared outcomes of 386 patients with ATL who underwent allogeneic HSCT using different graft sources: 154 received human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched related marrow or peripheral blood; 43 received HLA-mismatched related marrow or peripheral blood; 99 received unrelated marrow; 90 received single unit unrelated cord blood. After a median follow-up of 41 months (range, 1.5-102), 3-year overall survival for entire cohort was 33% (95% confidence interval, 28%-38%). Multivariable analysis revealed 4 recipient factors significantly associated with lower survival rates: older age (> 50 years), male sex, status other than complete remission, and use of unrelated cord blood compared with use of HLA-matched related grafts. Treatment-related mortality rate was higher among patients given cord blood transplants; disease-associated mortality was higher among male recipients or those given transplants not in remission. Among patients who received related transplants, donor HTLV-I seropositivity adversely affected disease-associated mortality. In conclusion, allogeneic HSCT using currently available graft source is an effective treatment in selected patients with ATL, although greater effort is warranted to reduce treatment-related mortality.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology