Tumor and Tumor-Associated Macrophage Programmed Death-Ligand 1 Expression Is Associated With Adjuvant Chemotherapy Benefit in Lung Adenocarcinoma

Daniel J. Gross, Navin K. Chintala, Raj G. Vaghjiani, Rachel Grosser, Kay See Tan, Xiaoyu Li, Jennie Choe, Yan Li, Rania G. Aly, Katsura Emoto, Hua Zheng, Joseph Dux, Waseem Cheema, Matthew J. Bott, William D. Travis, James M. Isbell, Bob T. Li, David R. Jones, Prasad S. Adusumilli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Introduction: Patients with stage II to III lung adenocarcinomas are treated with adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) to target the premetastatic niche that persists after curative-intent resection. We hypothesized that the premetastatic niche is a scion of resected lung tumor microenvironment and that analysis of tumor microenvironment can stratify survival benefit from ACT. Methods: Using tumor and tumoral stroma from 475 treatment-naive patients with stage II to III lung adenocarcinomas, we constructed a tissue microarray and performed multiplex immunofluorescent staining for immune markers (programmed death-ligand 1 [PD-L1], tumor-associated macrophages [TAMs], and myeloid-derived suppressor cells) and derived myeloid-lymphoid ratio. The association between immune markers and survival was evaluated using Cox models adjusted for pathologic stage. Results: Patients with high PD-L1 expression on TAMs or tumor cells in resected tumors had improved survival with ACT (TAMs: hazard ratio [HR] = 1.79, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12–2.85; tumor cells: HR = 3.02, 95% CI: 1.69–5.40). Among patients with high PD-L1 expression on TAMs alone or TAMs and tumor cells, ACT survival benefit is pronounced with high myeloid-lymphoid ratio (TAMs: HR = 3.87, 95% CI: 1.79–8.37; TAMs and tumor cells: HR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.02–4.71) or with high stromal myeloid-derived suppressor cell ratio (TAMs: HR = 2.53, 95% CI: 1.29–4.96; TAMs and tumor cells: HR = 3.21, 95% CI: 1.23–8.35). Patients with low or no PD-L1 expression on TAMs or tumor cells had no survival benefit from ACT. Conclusions: Our observation that PD-L1 expression on TAMs or tumor cells is associated with improved survival with ACT provides rationale for prospective investigation and developing chemoimmunotherapy strategies for patients with lung adenocarcinoma.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)89-102
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Thoracic Oncology
Volume17
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Jan

Keywords

  • MDSCs
  • Myeloid-lymphoid ratio
  • NSCLC
  • Premetastatic niche
  • Tumor immune microenvironment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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