In order to determine key MMPs for invasion and metastasis in various human cancers, we examined the expression of ten MMPs (MMP-1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 13 and MT1, 2, 3-MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1 and 2) in breast carcinomas, thyroid papillary carcinomas, endometrial carcinomas, ovarian carcinomas, gastric adenocarcinomas, oral squamous cell carcinomas and gliomas. Of the MMPs examined, the activation of proMMP-2 by MT1-MMP (membrane type 1-MMP) was commonly important for the invasion and metastasis of these cancers except for endometrial carcinomas. The MMP-2 and MT1-MMP were localized to the carcinoma cells and gelatinolytic activity was demonstrated within the carcinoma cell nests by in situ zymography. In endometrial carcinomas, production and activation of proMMP-7 were a key determinant of the lymph node metastasis. The activation of proMMP-2 in gliomas involved MT2-MMP as well as MT1-MMP, and a combination of decreased TIMP-2 production and enhanced MT1-MMP expression was important in the subarachnoidal dissemination of glioblastoma cells. Brevican, a major adult brain proteoglycan, was degraded with MMP-1, 2, 3, 7, 10 and ADAMTS4 (aggrecanase-1) by being cleaved at the MMP site (the Ala360-Phe361 bond) with the MMPs and ADAM site (the Glu395-Ser396 bond) with ADAMTS4. Since activated MMP-2 and ADAMTS4 are present in human glioma tissues, they may play a key role in the invasion of glioma cells through the brevican degradation. The data in the present study suggest that the extracellular matrix-degrading metalloproteinases acting probably on the cell membranes of cancer cells are essential to the invasion and metastasis of human cancers.
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Pathologie|
|Publication status||Published - 2000|
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