Tumor Necrosis Factor‐α (TNF‐α), Interferon‐γ, and Interleukin‐6 but Not TNF‐β Induce Differentiation of Neuroblastoma Cells: The Role of Nitric Oxide

Etsuro Ito, Kotaro Oka, Carlos Collin, Bernard G. Schreurs, Manabu Sakakibara, Daniel L. Alkon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

36 Citations (Scopus)


Abstract: Abstract: Previous observations have implicated GABA as a neurotransmitter released by the vestibular sensory neurons („hair cells”) of the snail Hermissenda onto visual sensory neurons, the type B cells, whose cell bodies are the sites of biophysical and biochemical changes during and following Pavlovian conditioning. Still other observations demonstrated that light‐GABA pairings that simulate stimuli presented during Pavlovian conditioning cause prolonged elevatiori of intracellular Ca2+ and transformation of GABA‐induced synaptic inhibition into excitation. Intracellular Ca2+ signals in response to GABA perfused onto the postsynaptic: type B terminal branches are shown here to be prolonged on days after conditioning, but not after control paradigms. These and past results demonstrate two separate sites, i.e., the cell body and the terminal branches, for learning‐induced changes after Pavlovian conditioning.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1337-1344
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Neurochemistry
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1994 Apr
Externally publishedYes



  • Associative learning
  • Hair cell
  • Hermissenda
  • Photoreceptor
  • [Ca] GABA

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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