The aim was to investigate the efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics for the prevention of febrile neutropenia (FN) during cabazitaxel therapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) with G-CSF. We retrospectively studied 443 cycles of cabazitaxel therapy given to 56 patients with CRPC at Keio University Hospital between May 2012 and August 2018. Statistical analysis was conducted to determine whether the combination of prophylactic G-CSF and antibiotics was more effective in preventing FN, compared with prophylactic G-CSF alone. Prophylactic PEG-G-CSF or G-CSF was administered in all 443 cycles. Only fluoroquinolones were used as prophylactic antibiotics and were administered in 328 cycles (74.0%). FN occurred in 5 cycles (1.1%). Prophylactic antibiotics were administered in 327 cycles (74.6%) in the FN-negative group and in only 1 cycle (20.0%) in the FN-positive group. Chi-square test indicated the incidence of FN was significantly lower in the group that received prophylactic antibiotics compared with the group that did not receive prophylactic antibiotics (P = 0.017). Compared with prophylactic G-CSF alone, prophylactic G-CSF and antibiotics significantly suppressed the occurrence of FN.
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