Variable threshold-voltage CMOS technology

Tadahiro Kuroda, Tetsuya Fujita, Fumitoshi Hatcri, Takayasu Sakurai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Citations (Scopus)


This paper describes a Variable Threshold-voltage CMOS technology (VTCMOS) which controls the threshold voltage (VTH) by means of substrate bias control. Circuit techniques to combine a switch circuit for an active mode and a pump circuit for a standby mode are presented. Design considerations, such as latch-up immunity and upper limit of reverse substrate bias, are discussed. Experimental results obtained from chips fabricated in a 0.3 μm VTCMOS technology are reported. VTH controllability including temperature dependence and influence on short channel effect, power penalty caused by the control circuit, substrate current dependence at low VTH, and substrate noise influence on circuit performance are investigated. A scaling theory is also presented for use in the discussion of future possibilities and problems involved in this technology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1705-1714
Number of pages10
JournalIEICE Transactions on Electronics
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2000 Jan 1



  • Low power CMOS design
  • Low voltage
  • Substrate bias
  • Threshold voltage

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

Kuroda, T., Fujita, T., Hatcri, F., & Sakurai, T. (2000). Variable threshold-voltage CMOS technology. IEICE Transactions on Electronics, E83-C(11), 1705-1714.