Many reports have been accumulated describing not a few microRNAs (miRNAs) in eukaryotes target viral genomes, whereas a number of viruses also encode miRNA genes. These small RNAs play important roles on viral infection and their replication. In germ cells, another small RNA, piRNA is reported to repress endogenous transposons. Furthermore, CRISPR RNA target virus/phage genomes in both archaea and bacteria. Therefore, small RNA is deeply involved in a broad range of biological defense systems. This system may be applied not only to control replication of viruses or phages but also provide implication on regulating the growth of microorganisms including pathogenic bacteria.
ASJC Scopus subject areas