Background: Several lifestyle-related factors, such as obesity and diabetes, have been identified as risk factors for Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality. The objective of this study was to examine the global association between lifestyle-related factors and COVID-19 mortality using data from each individual country. Methods: The association between prevalence of seven lifestyle-related factors (overweight, insufficient physical activity, smoking, type-2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, and age over 65) and COVID-19 mortality was assessed by linear and multivariable regression among 186 countries. The cumulative effect of lifestyle-related factors on COVID-19 mortality was assessed by dividing countries into four categories according to the number of lifestyle-related factors in the upper half range and comparing the mean mortality between groups. Results: In linear regression, COVID-19 mortality was significantly associated with overweight, insufficient physical activity, hyperlipidaemia, and age ≥65. In multivariable regression, overweight and age ≥65 demonstrated significant association with COVID-19 mortality (p =.0039,.0094). Countries with more risk factors demonstrated greater COVID-19 mortality (P for trend <.001). Conclusion: Lifestyle-related factors, especially overweight and elderly population, were associated with increased COVID-19 mortality on a global scale. Global effort to reduce burden of lifestyle-related factors along with protection and vaccination of these susceptible groups may help reduce COVID-19 mortality.
- lifestyle-related factors
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