OBJECTIVES: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is now recognized as a geriatric syndrome with multifactorial pathophysiology and clinical heterogeneity rather than a solely left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Because the pathophysiology of HFpEF is suggested to differ by age, this study compared the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors between HFpEF patients aged 65 to 84 years and those aged 85 years or older. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: The Tokyo CCU Network including 73 hospitals in Tokyo, Japan. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 65 years or older with HFpEF (N = 4305). MEASUREMENTS: Very old patients were defined as those aged 85 years or older. Potential risk factors for in-hospital mortality were selected by univariate analyses, and those with a P value <.10 were used in multivariate Cox regression analysis with forward selection (likelihood ratio) to identify significant factors. RESULTS: Prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher in very old patients, whereas prevalence of coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and smoking was significantly higher in patients aged 65 to 84 years. In very old patients, low systolic blood pressure (hazard ratio [HR] =.988), high serum creatinine level (HR = 1.34), and coexisting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; HR = 2.01) were identified as independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality. In contrast, low systolic blood pressure (HR =.987) and low body mass index (HR =.935) were identified as independent risk factors in patients aged 65 to 84 years. CONCLUSION: Significant differences were observed in the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors for in-hospital mortality between HFpEF patients aged 65 to 84 and those 85 years and older. Of note, coexisting COPD was associated with significantly lower survival rate only in patients aged 85 years and older, suggesting the prognostic impact of concomitant pulmonary disease in HFpEF may increase with age. These results have implications for future research and management of older HFpEF patients. J Am Geriatr Soc 00:1–6, 2019.
- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
- heart failure with preserved ejection fraction
- very old
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geriatrics and Gerontology