α1-Antichymotrypsin (ACT), a component of the senile plaque of the Alzheimer's disese (AD) brain, has a possible role as a molecular chaperone in developing AD pathology. This study was a search for the possible association of the two structural polymorphisms of ACT, Ala15 → Thr and Met389 → Val in the Japanese population. In 101 AD patients, genotype and allele frequencies of the two polymorphisms did not differ from those of 104 age-matched healthy controls. However, in those subjects in which the apolipoprotein ε4 allele was absent, the frequency of the Ala15 homozygote was significantly higher in the AD patients than in controls. This suggests that the Ala15 homozygote state may be a susceptibility marker for AD, interacting with apolipoprotein E genotype.
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