(9S)-9-(2-Hydroxy-4,4-dimethyl-6-oxo-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3,3-dimethyl-2,3,4, 9-tetrahydro-1H-xanthen-1-one ((S)-1) was identified as a selective and orally active neuropeptide Y Y5 receptor antagonist. The structure-activity relationship for this structural class was investigated and showed that limited substitution on the phenyl ring was tolerated and that modification of the 4,4-dimethyl group of the cyclohexenone and the 3,3-dimethyl group of the xanthenone parts slightly improved potency. The plasma concentration-time profile after oral administration of (S)-1 in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats showed significant in vivo racemization of (S)-1 and that (S)-1 is cleared much more quickly than (R)-1. The duration of (S)-1 in SD rats after oral administration of (RS)-1 racemate was twice as long as that following oral administration of (S)-1. The Cmax values of (S)-1 after administration of (S)-1 and (RS)-1 were comparable, and the brain to plasma ratio for (S)-1 was 0.34 in SD rats. In our acute D-Trp34NPY-induced food intake model, both (S)-1 and (RS)-1 showed potent and dose-dependent efficacy. Therefore, the use of (RS)-1 is suitable for studies that require sustained plasma exposure of (S)-1.
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