Intestinal immune homeostasis is regulated by gut microbiota, including beneficial and pathogenic microorganisms. Imbalance in gut bacterial constituents provokes host proinflammatory responses causing diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The development of next-generation sequencing technology allows the identification of microbiota alterations in IBD. Several studies have shown reduced diversity in the gut microbiota of patients with IBD. Advances in gnotobiotic technology have made possible analysis of the role of specific bacterial strains in immune cells in the intestine. Using these techniques, we have shown that Clostridium butyricum as a probiotic induces interleukin-10-producing macrophages in inflamed mucosa via the Toll-like receptor 2/myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 pathway to prevent acute experimental colitis. In this review, we focus on the new approaches for the role of specific bacterial strains in immunological responses, as well as the potential of bacterial therapy for IBD treatments.
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