Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a genetic disorder, characterized by the progressive formation of renal cysts. Although ADPKD is strongly associated with cerebral and cardiovascular complications, cerebral ischemia caused by dissection of thoracic and carotid arteries has rarely been reported. We report the case of a 71-year-old Japanese woman who complained of hemiparesis. She required maintenance hemodialysis therapy with a background of ADPKD. Cerebral infarction was initially diagnosed by excluding intracranial hemorrhage and aneurysm rupture that are recognized as common complications of ADPKD and thereby anticoagulation therapy was initiated. However, the patient was suspected as having painless aortic dissection because a chest X-ray examination showed expanded upper mediastinum. Sequential vascular imagings revealed dissection of the aorta, originating from brachiocephalic trunk to the right common carotid artery with mediastinal hematoma. The patient died from progression of dissection. Herein, we described a case of the ADPKD patient that an acute aortic dissection without any pain induced the occlusion of supplying vessels to the brain, resulting in cerebral ischemic symptoms. A high level of clinical vigilance for an acute aortic dissection should be maintained in the ADPKD population with sudden onset of neurological symptoms even in the absence of pain. Furthermore, the initiation of anticoagulation treatment for cerebral ischemia which may aggravate the risk of further dissection requires careful consideration.
ASJC Scopus subject areas