We herein report a case of a 28-year-old man with generalized lipodystrophy-associated progeroid syndrome treated by leptin replacement. He showed symptoms of generalized lipodystrophy around onset of puberty. His body mass index was 11.9 kg/m2, and he had a short stature, birdlike facies, dental crowding due to micrognathia, partial graying and loss of hair, and a high-pitched voice, all of which are typical features of the progeroid syndrome. Laboratory examinations and abdominal ultrasonography revealed diabetes mellitus, insulin-resistance, dyslipidemia, decreased serum leptin levels (2.2 ng/ mL), elevated serum hepatobiliary enzyme levels and fatty liver. Whole exome sequencing revealed de novo heterozygous LMNA p.T10I mutation, indicating generalized lipodystrophy-associated progeroid syndrome, which is a newly identified subtype of atypical progeroid syndrome characterized by severe metabolic abnormalities. Daily injection of metreleptin [1.2 mg (0.04 mg/kg)/day] was started. Metreleptin treatment significantly improved his diabetes from HbA1c 11.0% to 5.4% in six months. It also elevated serum testosterone levels. Elevated serum testosterone levels persisted even 1 year after the initiation of metreleptin treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first Japanese case report of generalized lipodystrophy-associated progeroid syndrome. Furthermore, we evaluated short and long-term effectiveness of leptin replacement on generalized lipodystrophy by monitoring metabolic and endocrine profiles.
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