Introduction: Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) responds poorly to conventional chemotherapy, but allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) may improve disease prognosis. Herein, we report a female patient with human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy (HAM)-like myelopathy following allo-SCT for ATL. Case report: She developed crural paresis 14 months after allo-SCT. Initially, she was diagnosed with central nervous system (CNS) relapse of ATL and treated with intrathecal injection and whole brain and spine irradiation. Her symptoms recurred 5 months later, when a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimen showed increased CD4 + CXCR3 + CCR4+ cell numbers and levels of neopterin and CXCL10 (IP-10). Discussion: These results suggest the possible involvement of a certain immunological mechanism such as HAM in her symptoms, irrespective of the lack of anti-HTLV-I antibody in her CSF. Because a definitive diagnosis of CNS manifestation of ATL is sometimes difficult, multi-modal laboratory data are required for differential diagnosis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas