We experienced a case manifesting progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in a hemodialytic patient with hepatitis C virus-induced liver cirrhosis and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1)-associated uveitis. A 57-year-old male patient had received chronic hemodialysis therapy for 10 years, during which he received multiple blood transfusions and HTLV-1-associated uveitis developed. He complained of visual disturbance and disorientation. Brain CT scan showed diffuse and multifocal low density areas in occipital and temporal lobes, with gray matter relatively spared. MRI imaging showed high intensity lesions in the same areas. Cerebrospinal fluid culture was negative, but using nested PCR, rearranged regulatory region of JC virus DNA was detected. His consciousness level gradually deteriorated and complete paraplegia developed. Seven months after admission, he died of pneumonia. An autopsy confirmed the diagnosis of PML. Notably, mononuclear cell infiltration, gliosis and demyelinating lesions but no nuclear inclusion bodies were observed in the thoracic cord, which suggested HTLV-1-associated myelopathy. Because JC virus is activated under immunocompromised conditions, precipitating factors in this case appear multifactorial; depressed immune system induced by chronic hemodialysis as well as blood-borne hepatitis C virus/HTLV-1 infection might contribute to the activation of dormant JC virus and the development of florid clinical manifestation of PML.
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