Esteban and Ray (1994) formalized the idea of polarization and developed a theory for its measurement. In their main theorem, they claimed that a class of polarization measures, called the Esteban–Ray measures, is characterized by a set of axioms that capture the idea of polarization. However, in this study, we show that the claim does not hold by presenting a counterexample. We amend their main theorem by strengthening the first axiom.
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